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There are two ways of producing gaseous fuel from waste: (a) gasification of the waste at high temperatures by partial oxidation and then conversion of materials containing carbon into synthesis gas (mainly hydrogen and carbon monoxide) and (b) production of biogas, mainly methane, by the anaerobic digestion of waste Gasification is the general term used for processes where heat is used to transform a feedstock, usually a solid feedstock such as coal (Chap 5) or biomass (Chap 8) or wood (Chap 10) into a gaseous fuel Similarly, the gasification process is also applicable to the conversion of any solid carbonaceous waste to a clean burning gaseous fuel Whether starting with coffee grounds, municipal trash, or junk tires, the end product is a flexible gaseous fuel and with the relevant process modifications production of liquid and solid fuels is also possible Biochemical conversion options can be divided into digestion (production of biogas, a mixture of mainly methane and carbon dioxide) and fermentation (production of ethanol) With respect to thermochemical conversion options, a distinction can be made between combustion, gasification, and pyrolysis Anaerobic digestion is a process whereby organic waste is broken down in a controlled, oxygen free environment by bacteria naturally occurring in the waste material Methane rich biogas is produced thus facilitating renewable energy generation As a result, materials that are currently going to landfill can be utilized; natural methane emissions are reduced and conventional generation with its associated carbon emissions is displaced The residual nutrient rich liquor and digestate is suitable for use as fertilizer on the farmland surrounding such a plant, reducing the need for artificial fertilizer In summary, anaerobic digestion is a form of composting and its use for the conversion of waste to gaseous fuel by anaerobic processes is covered elsewhere in this text (Chap 12) The concept of the production of fuel gas by gasification of waste is not new (Rensfelt and stman, 1996) Whilst solid wastes were somewhat in focus for the gasification and pyrolysis activities, around 1970, biomass gasification took over the central role when the oil prices went up after 1973 This is reflected in availability of a wide range of processes that has been discussed elsewhere (Rensfelt and stman, 1996) and will not be repeated here Most of the processes were designed for wood or wood waste (Chap 10) and, surprisingly, some of these processes have also been proposed for waste handling and are taking up the move to commercialization that was last evident two decades ago
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FUELS FROM DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE
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1141 Chemistry The principle behind waste gasification and the production of gaseous fuels is that that waste contains carbon and it is this carbon that is converted to gaseous products via the usual gasification chemistry Thus, when fuel is fed to a gasifier, water and volatile matter are released fast and a char residue is left to react further The char gasification is what mainly controls the conversion achieved in the process From solid carbon, product gas is formed according to the following main reactions: C + H2O CO + H2 C + CO2 2CO C + 2H2 CH4 In addition to the reactions of solid carbon, the most important reaction is the water-gas shift reaction, which takes place in the gas phase: CO + H2O H2 + CO2 The product gas generally contains large amounts of hydrogen and carbon monoxide and a small amount of methane, as well as carbon dioxide and steam, and in air gasification nitrogen In addition, a significant amount of other organic components in the gas, known as tar, is formed Tar formation is a well-known phenomenon in the thermal reactions of coal (Speight, 1994 and references cited therein) and can also be anticipated to form in the gasification or pyrolysis of any complex carbonaceous material Biomass-based fuels (and many components of domestic and industrial waste can be included in this category) are non-fossil fuels Vegetative biomass can be classified into the categories woody, herbaceous, agricultural by-products, energy crops, and black liquor (a by-product of the forest industry) (Grace et al 1989) Because of the high concentration of organic materials in industrial waste and in domestic waste (including discarded food), many constituents of waste are actually biomass But the issues arise from the other constituents of the waste that make the waste truly heterogeneous and, in many cases, of indeterminate composition
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1142 Reactors Most of the reactors were of the fixed bed type (updraft or downdraft) and are considered to be adequate processes for local use in terms of the alternate, that is, landfilling the waste However, whether wastes should be handled locally or in large-scale, centralized units is another issue that is still under debate Thus, a process for waste gasification (Fig 111) must be chosen to reflect the character of the waste relation to the main questions in this report as stated in the introduction
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