FUELS FROM DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE in Visual C#

Reader Code-128 in Visual C# FUELS FROM DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE

FUELS FROM DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WASTE
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increase the lubricity of pure ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel Much of the world uses a system known as the B factor to state the amount of biodiesel in any fuel mix, in contrast to the BA or E system used for ethanol mixes For example, fuel containing 20 percent biodiesel is labeled B20 whereas pure biodiesel is referred to as B100 Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be manufactured from algae, vegetable oils, animal fats, or recycled restaurant greases; it can be produced locally in most countries It is safe, biodegradable, and reduces air pollutants, such as particulates, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons Blends of 20 percent biodiesel with 80 percent petroleum diesel (B20) can generally be used in unmodified diesel engines Biodiesel can also be used in its pure form (B100), but may require certain engine modifications to avoid maintenance and performance problems Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based diesel but it is produced from biodegradable materials and can be used as fuel in diesel engines It can also be used in boilers or furnaces designed to use heating oils or in oil-fueled lighting equipment or used neat (100 percent biodiesel), or it can be blended with petroleum diesel Biodiesel is made by chemically reacting vegetable oil or animal fat (or combinations of oils and fats) with alcohol (usually nearly pure methanol or ethanol) and a catalyst (sodium hydroxide) The chemical reaction converts constituents of the vegetable oil into an ester (biodiesel fuel) and glycerol Since the biodiesel is less dense than the glycerol, it floats on top of the glycerol and may be pumped off, or the glycerol can be drained off the bottom The fuel can then be filtered and used in heating or lighting applications It is possible to use the product in diesel engines without further processing, but caution is advised because of the potential for engine damage and it is recommended that impurities (unreacted alcohol and sodium hydroxide) are removed by a washing Almost any variety of oil or grease (from new food-grade vegetable oil to used cooking oil or trap grease to waste water treatment-plant grease) can be converted into biodiesel However, the amounts of reactants (oil, methanol, and sodium hydroxide) vary to some degree, depending on what oil is used The amount of methanol and sodium hydroxide must be sufficient to react with the vegetable oil, but excessive amounts of these reactants should not be used Just as an engine requires excess air to be sure that all the fuel burns, it takes excess methanol to be sure all of the oil reacts The chemistry of biodiesel production is known as transesterification insofar as the process involves reaction of glyceride-containing plant oil with a short chain alcohol such as methanol or ethanol:
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O OCR1 OCR2 OCR3 Cat base 3 EtOH R1 COOEt + R2 COOEt + R3 COOEt + C3H5(OH)3 Ethyl esters of fatty acids Glycerol
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Triglyceride
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Animal and plant fats and oils are typically made of triglycerides which are esters of free fatty acids with the trihydric alcohol, glycerol In the transesterification reaction, the alcohol is deprotonated with a base to make it a stronger nucleophile Commonly, ethanol or methanol is used Usually, this reaction will proceed either exceedingly slowly or not at all Heat, as well as an acid or base are used to help the reaction proceed more quickly Almost all biodiesel is produced using the base-catalyzed technique as it is the most economical process requiring only low temperatures and pressures and producing over 98 percent conversion yield (provided the starting oil is low in moisture and free fatty acids)
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