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NATURAL GAS
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through temperature effects occurred over geologic time (millennia) and shortening the time to laboratory time and increasing the temperature to above and beyond the cracking temperature (at which the chemistry changes) does not offer conclusive proof of high temperatures (Speight, 2007a) Nevertheless, at some point during or after the maturation process, the gas and crude oil migrate from the source rock either upward or sideways or in both directions (subject to the structure of the accompanying and overlying geological formations) Eventually, the gas and crude oil became trapped in reservoirs that may be many miles from the source rock It is rare that the source rock and the reservoir were one and the same Thus, a natural gas field may have a series of layers of crude oil/gas and gas reservoirs in the subsurface In some instances, the natural gas and crude oil parted company leading to the occurrence of reservoirs containing only gas (nonassociated gas) Reservoirs generally comprise a geologic formation that is made up of layers of porous, sedimentary rock, such as sandstone, in which the gas can collect However, for retention of the gas each trap must have an impermeable base rock and an impermeable cap rock to prevent further movement of the gas Such formations, known as reservoirs or traps (ie, naturally occurring storage areas) vary in size and can retain varying amounts of gas There are a number of different types of these formations, but the most common is, characteristically, a folded rock formation such as an anticline as occurs in many petroleum reservoirs (Fig 21), that traps and holds natural gas On the other hand, a reservoir may be formed by a geologic fault that occurs when the normal sedimentary layers sort of split vertically, so that impermeable rock shifts down to trap natural gas in the more permeable limestone or sandstone layers Essentially, the geologic formation which layers impermeable rock over more porous, oil and gas rich sediment has the potential to form a reservoir
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Oil layer with dissolved gas
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FIGURE 21 An anticlinal reservoir containing oil and (associated) gas
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Reservoirs vary in size from a few hundred meters to tens of kilometers across in plain, and tens to hundreds of meters thick, with the gas trapped against an impermeable layer similar to crude oil traps (Speight, 2007a) Some reservoirs may be only hundreds of feet
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CHAPTER TWO
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below the surface Other reservoirs are thousands, even tens of thousands of feet underground In the United States, several reservoirs have been discovered at depths greater than 30,000 ft Many offshore wells are drilled in thousands of feet of water and penetrate tens of thousands of feet into the sediments below the sea floor Natural gas reservoirs, like crude oil reservoirs, exist in many forms such as the dome (syncline-anticline) structure (Fig 22), with water below, or a dome of gas with a crude oil rim and water below the oil When the water is in direct contact with the gas, pressure effects may dictate that a considerable portion of the gas (20 percent or more) is dissolved in the crude oil as well as in the water As gas is produced (or recovered) from the reservoir, the reservoir pressure declines allowing the dissolved gas to enter the gas phase In addition, and because of the variability of reservoir structure, gas does not always flow equally to wells placed throughout the length, breadth, and depth of the reservoir and at equal pressure Recovery wells must be distributed throughout the reservoir to recover as much of the gas as efficiently as possible
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Natural gas
Cap rock Sedimentary porous rock
FIGURE 22 An anticlinal reservoir containing unassociated natural gas
As the gas pressure in the reservoir declines, the reservoir energy (ie, reservoir pressure) declines, and the gas requires stimulation for continued production Furthermore, reduction in the gas pressure may allow compaction of the reservoir rock by the weight of rock above eventually resulting in subsidence of the surface above the reservoir This can be gradual process or a sudden catastrophic process depending on the structures of the geologic formation above the reservoir A reservoir containing wet gas with a large amount of valuable natural gas liquids (any hydrocarbons other than methane such as ethane, propane, and butane) and even light crude oil and condensate has to be treated carefully When the reservoir pressure drops below the critical point for the mixture, the liquids may condense out and remain in the reservoir Thus it is necessary to implement a cycling process in which the wet gas is produced to the surface and the natural gas liquids are condensed as a separate stream and the gas is compressed and injected back into the reservoir to maintain the pressure Once brought from underground (recovered from the reservoir), natural gas is refined to remove impurities like water, other gases, sand, and other compounds Some hydrocarbons
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