LANDFILL GAS in Visual C#.NET

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LANDFILL GAS
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this is practically odorless and smokeless The residue left after the extraction of the gas is used as biofertiliser Owing to its simplicity in implementation and use of cheap raw materials in the villages, it is often quoted as one of the most environmentally sound energy source for the rural needs
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124 FORMATION OF LANDFILL GAS
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Most landfill gas is produced by bacterial decomposition, which occurs when organic waste is broken down by bacteria naturally present in the waste and in the soil used to cover the landfill Organic wastes include food, garden waste, street sweepings, textiles, and wood and paper products Bacteria decompose organic waste in four phases, and the composition of the gas changes during each phase (Fig 123) During the first phase of decomposition, aerobic bacteria (bacteria that live only in the presence of oxygen) consume oxygen while breaking down the long molecular chains of complex carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids that comprise organic waste The primary
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Aerobic Anaerobic
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Gas component (% by volume)
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Carbon dioxide 45 60%
50 40 60% 40 Methane 30
20 Hydrogen 10 Nitrogen Oxygen 0
FIGURE 123 Variation of the composition of landfill gas with the onset of the various bacterial decomposition phases
2 5%
CHAPTER TWELVE
by-product of this process is carbon dioxide Nitrogen content is high at the beginning of this phase, but declines as the landfill moves through the four phases The chemistry of this first phase continues until the available oxygen is depleted This phase can last for days or months, depending on how much oxygen is present when the waste is disposed in the landfill Oxygen levels will vary according to factors such as how loose or compressed the waste was when it was buried The second phase starts after the oxygen in the landfill has been consumed Using an anaerobic process (a process that does not require oxygen), bacteria convert compounds created by aerobic bacteria into acetic, lactic, and formic acids and alcohols such as methanol and ethanol The landfill becomes highly acidic As the acids mix with the moisture present in the landfill, they cause certain nutrients to dissolve, making nitrogen and phosphorus available to the increasingly diverse species of bacteria in the landfill The gaseous by-products of these processes are carbon dioxide and hydrogen If the landfill is disturbed or if oxygen is somehow introduced into the landfill, microbial processes return those chemical processes typical of the first phase of decomposition The third phase commences when certain kinds of anaerobic bacteria consume the organic acids produced in the second phase and form acetate, an organic acid This process causes the landfill to become a more neutral environment in which methane-producing bacteria begin to establish themselves Methane- and acid-producing bacteria have a symbiotic, or mutually beneficial, relationship Acid-producing bacteria create compounds for the methanogenic bacteria to consume Methanogenic bacteria consume the carbon dioxide and acetate, too much of which would be toxic to the acid-producing bacteria The fourth phase of deocmpostion begins when both the composition and production rates of landfill gas remain relatively constant The gas produced in this phase gas usually contains approximately 45 to 60 percent methane by volume, 40 to 60 percent carbon dioxide, and 2 to 9 percent other gases, such as sulfides Gas is produced at a stable rate, typically for about 20 years However, gas will continue to be emitted for 50 or more years after the waste is placed in the landfill (Crawford and Smith, 1985) Gas production might last longer, for example, if greater amounts of organics are present in the waste, such as at a landfill receiving higher than average amounts of domestic animal waste As might be anticipated from the above paragraphs, there are many reactions that occur amongst the array of waste that is sent to landfill Of the wastes that are disposed to landfill, municipal wastes are likely to play the greatest role in chemical reactions, with perhaps some arising as a result of hazardous waste However, as the name suggests, inert wastes are chemically unreactive The majority of reactions occur as a result of the biodegradation, or breakdown, of organic material via microbial activity, but chemical interactions can also be seen to exist in the case of inorganic materials Many of the biochemical reactions in landfill sites occur as a result of the presence of the reactive, organic wastes which account for more than half of the average household s waste (Hester and Harrison, 2002 p 29) There are five major reaction processes involved, with different microorganisms involved at each stage Although much more complex, the chemistry occurring at landfill sites is generally represented in the simplest form as the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose For cellulose: (C6H10O5)n + nH2O 3nCO2 + 3nCH4 For hemicellulose: 2(C5H8O4)n + 2nH2O 5nCO2 + 5nCH4
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