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natural gas is odorless, colorless, noncorrosive, and nontoxic When vaporized it burns only in concentrations of 5 to 15 percent when mixed with air (Sec 24) Neither liquefied natural gas, nor its vapor, can explode in an unconfined environment Since liquefied natural gas takes less volume and weight, it presents more convenient options for storage and transportation
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24 UNCONVENTIONAL GAS
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The boundary between conventional gas and unconventional gas resources is not well defined, because they result from a continuum of geologic conditions Coal seam gas, more frequently called coalbed methane, is frequently referred to as unconventional gas Tight shale gas and gas hydrates are also placed into the category of unconventional gas
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241 Coalbed Methane Coalbed methane and gas hydrates (Sec 242) are two relatively new resources that is recognized as having plentiful supplies of methane and other lower boiling hydrocarbons (Berecz and Balla-Achs, 1983; Sloan, 1997; Gudmundsson et al, 1998; Max, 2000; Sloan, 2000) Coalbed methane (CBM) is the generic term given to methane gas held in underground coal seams and released or produced when the water pressure within the seam is reduced by pumping from either vertical or inclined to horizontal surface holes The methane is predominantly formed during the coalification process whereby organic matter is slowly transformed into coal by increasing temperature and pressure as the organic matter is buried deeper and deeper by additional deposits of organic and inorganic matter over long periods of geologic time This is referred to as thermogenic coalbed methane Alternatively, and more often (but not limited to) in lower rank and thermally immature coals, recent bacterial processes (involving naturally occurring bacteria associated with meteoric water recharge at outcrop or sub-crop) can dominate the generation of coalbed methane This is referred to as late stage biogenic coalbed methane During the coalification process, a range of chemical reactions take place which produce substantial quantities of gas While much of this gas escapes into the overlying or underlying rock, a large amount is retained within the forming coal seams However, unlike conventional natural gas reservoirs, where gas is trapped in the pore or void spaces of a rock such as sandstone, methane formed and trapped in coal is actually adsorbed onto the coal grain surfaces or micropores and held in place by reservoir (water) pressure Therefore because the micropore surface area is very large, coal can potentially hold significantly more methane per unit volume than most sandstone reservoirs The amount of methane stored in coal is closely related to the rank and depth of the coal; the higher the coal rank and the deeper the coal seam is presently buried (causing pressure on coal) the greater its capacity to produce and retain methane Because coal has a very large internal surface area of over 1 billion square feet per ton of coal, it can hold on average three times as much gas in place as the same volume of a conventional sandstone reservoir at equal depth and pressure In order to allow the absorbed gas to be released from the coal it is often necessary to lower the pressure on the coal This generally involves removing the water contained in the coalbed After the gas is released from the internal surfaces of the coal it moves through the coal s internal matrix until it reaches natural fracture networks in the coal known as cleats The gas then flows through these cleats or fractures until it reaches the well bore
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CHAPTER TWO
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Gas derived from coal is generally pure and requires little or no processing because it is solely methane and not mixed with heavier hydrocarbons, such as ethane, which is often present in conventional natural gas Coalbed methane has a slightly higher energy value than some natural gases Coal seam gas well productivity depends mostly on reservoir pressure and water saturation To recover coalbed methane, multi-well patterns are necessary to dewater the coal and to establish a favorable pressure gradient Since the gas is adsorbed on the surface of the coal and trapped by reservoir pressure, initially there is low gas production and high water production Therefore, an additional expense relates to the disposal of coalbed water, which may be saline, acidic, or alkaline As production continues, water production declines and gas production increases, before eventually beginning a long decline In general, however, coal seam gas recovery rates have been low and unpredictable Average per-well conventional gas production in a mature gas-rich basin is about five times higher than average per-well coal seam gas production Thus, several times as many wells have to be drilled in coal seams than in conventional gas accumulations to achieve similar gas recovery levels
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242 Gas Hydrates In addition to coalbed methane (Sec 241), another relatively new, and possibly large source of methane that can be expected to extend the availability of natural gas, is methane hydrate (also called gas hydrate or methane ice) (Berecz and Balla-Achs, 1983; Sloan, 1997; Gudmundsson et al, 1998; Max, 2000; Sloan, 2000) Their production technologies have only recently been developed and these sources are now becoming economically competitive A gas hydrate is a molecule consisting of an ice lattice or cage in which low molecular weight hydrocarbon molecules, such as methane, are embedded The two major conditions that promote hydrate formation are thus: (a) high gas pressure and low gas temperature, and (b) the gas at or below its water dew point with free water present Gas hydrates are common constituents of the shallow marine geosphere and occur both in deep sedimentary structures, and as outcrops on the ocean floor Methane hydrates are believed to form by migration of gas from depth along geologic faults, followed by precipitation, or crystallization, on contact of the rising gas stream with cold sea water At high pressures methane hydrates remain stable at temperatures up to 18 C and the typical methane hydrate contain one molecule of methane for every six molecules of water that forms the ice cage, but this ratio is dependent on the number of methane molecules that fit into the various cage structures of the water lattice One liter of solid methane hydrate can contain up to 168 L of methane gas Methane hydrates are restricted to the shallow lithosphere (ie, less than 2000 m depth) Furthermore, necessary conditions are found only either in polar continental sedimentary rocks where surface temperatures are less than 0 C; or in oceanic sediment at water depths greater than 300 m where the bottom water temperature is around 2 C (35 F) Continental deposits have been located in Siberia and Alaska in sandstone and siltstone beds at less than 800 m depth The methane in gas hydrates is dominantly generated by bacterial degradation of organic matter in low oxygen environments Organic matter in the uppermost few centimeters of sediments is first attacked by aerobic bacteria, generating carbon dioxide, which escapes from the sediments into the water column In this region of aerobic bacterial activity sulfates are reduced to sulfides If the sedimentation rate is low (<1 cm per 1000 years), the
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