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and bears no relationship to the density of water) As a comparison, the density of liquefied natural gas is approximately 041 to 05 kg/L, depending on temperature, pressure, and composition; in comparison the density of water is 10 kg/L Density values (including those of natural gas hydrocarbons; Fig 23) are given at room temperature unless otherwise indicated by a superscript figure For example, 248715 indicates a density of 2487 g/cm at 15 C
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0800 0700 0600 Density 0500 0400 0300 0200 0100 0000 C1
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FIGURE 23
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Carbon number
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Carbon number and density of natural gas hydrocarbons (up to octane, C8H18)
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The density of any gas compared to the density of air is the vapor density and is a very important characteristic of natural gas constituents (Fig 24) Furthermore, the statement is often made that natural gas is lighter than air This statement often arises because of the continued insistence by engineers and scientists that the properties of a mixture are determined by the mathematical average of the properties of the individual constituents of the mixture Such mathematical bravado and inconsistency of thought is detrimental to safety and needs to be qualified
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450 400 350 Vapor density 300 250 200 150 100 050 000 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 Carbon number C6 C7 C8
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FIGURE 24 Carbon number and vapor density (relative to air = 10) of natural gas hydrocarbons (up to octane, C8H18)
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CHAPTER TWO
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Relative to air, methane is less dense (Table 24) but the other hydrocarbon constituents of unrefined natural gas (ie, ethane, propane, butane, etc) are denser than air (Fig 24) Therefore, should a natural gas leak occur in field operations, especially where the natural gas contains constituents other than methane, only methane dissipates readily into the air and the higher molecular weight hydrocarbon constituents pose a considerable risk if the ambient conditions are such that they accumulate at ground level
TABLE 24 Boiling Point and Density of Methane Relative to Air and Water Boiling point (760 mm Hg) Gas specific gravity Specific gravity of liquefied natural gas Gas density (varies slightly) 1615 C ( 2587 F) 055 064 (air = 100) 042 046 (water = 100) 00438 lb/scf
262 Heat of Combustion (Energy Content) All of the hydrocarbon constituents of natural gas are combustible, but nonflammable nonhydrocarbon components (carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen, and helium) detract slightly from the heating value of natural gas The heat of combustion (energy content) of natural gas is the amount of energy obtained from the burning of a volume of natural gas and is measured in British thermal units (Btu) The value of natural gas is calculated by its Btu content One Btu is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water of 1 F at atmospheric pressure A cubic foot of natural gas has an energy content of approximately 1031 Btu, but the range of values is between 500 and 1500 Btu depending upon the composition of the gas Thus, the energy content of natural gas is variable because natural gas has variations in the amount and types of energy gases (methane, ethane, propane, butane) it contains: the more noncombustible gases in the natural gas, the lower the energy (Btu) In addition, the volume mass of energy gases which are present in a natural gas accumulation also influences the Btu value of natural gas The more carbon atoms in a hydrocarbon gas, the higher its Btu value It is necessary to conduct the Btu analysis of natural gas at each stage of the supply chain Gas chromatographic process analyzers are used in order to conduct fractional analysis of the natural gas streams, separating natural gas into identifiable components The components and their concentrations are converted into a gross heating value in Btu-cubic foot In the United States, at retail, natural gas is often sold in units of therms (th) (1 therm = 100,000 Btu) Wholesale transactions are generally done in decatherms (Dth), or in thousand decatherms (MDth), or in million decatherms (MMDth) A million decatherms is roughly a billion cubic feet of natural gas The gross heats of combustion of crude oil and its products are given with fair accuracy by the equation: Q = 12,400 2100d2 where d is the 60/60 F specific gravity Deviation from the formula is generally less than 1 percent 263 Volatility, Flammability, and Explosive Properties The boiling point (boiling temperature) of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the substance is equal to atmospheric pressure
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