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CHAPTER TWO
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absorbent is stripped of the gas components (regeneration) and recycled to the absorber The process design will vary and, in practice, may employ multiple absorption columns and multiple regeneration columns Amine (olamine) washing of natural gas involves chemical reaction of the amine with any acid gases with the liberation of an appreciable amount of heat and it is necessary to compensate for the absorption of heat Amine derivatives such as monoethanolamine or ethanolamine (MEA), diethanolamine (DEA), triethanolamine (TEA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and diglycolamine (DGA) have been used in commercial applications (Kohl and Riesenfeld, 1985; Speight, 1993; Polasek and Bullin, 1994; Mokhatab et al, 2006; Speight, 2007b) Processes that use MDEA became popular with the natural gas industry because of its high selectivity for hydrogen sulfide over carbon dioxide This high selectivity allows for a reduced solvent circulation rate, as well as a richer hydrogen sulfide feed to the sulfur recovery unit The reaction of MDEA with hydrogen sulfide is almost instantaneous However, the reaction of MDEA with carbon dioxide is much slower; the reaction rate of MDEA with carbon dioxide is slower than that of carbon dioxide with MEA Depending upon the application, special solutions such as mixtures of amines; amines with physical solvents such as sulfolane and piperazine; and amines that have been partially neutralized with an acid such as phosphoric acid may also be used (Bullin, 2003) The proper selection of the amine can have a major impact on the performance and cost of a sweetening unit However, many factors must be considered when selecting an amine for a sweetening application (Polasek and Bullin, 1994) Considerations for evaluating an amine type in gas treating systems are numerous It is important to consider all aspects of the amine chemistry and type since the omission of a single issue may lead to operational issues While studying each issue, it is important to understand the fundamentals of each amine solution 2(RNH2) + H2S (RNH3)2S (RNH3)2S + H2S 2(RNH3)HS 2(RNH2) + CO2 RNHCOONH3R These reactions are reversible by changing the system temperature Ethanolamine also reacts with carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide to form heat-stable salts that cannot be regenerated Diethanolamine is a weaker base than ethanolamine and therefore the diethanolamine system does not typically suffer the same corrosion problems but does reacts with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide: 2R2NH + H2S (R2NH2)2S (R2NH2)2S + H2S 2(R2NH2)HS 2R2NH + CO2 R2NCOONH2R2 Diethanolamine also removes carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide partially as its regenerable compound with carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide without much solution losses The general process flow diagram for an amine sweetening plant varies little, regardless of the aqueous amine solution used as the sweetening agent (Fig 27) The sour gas containing hydrogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide will nearly always enter the plant through an inlet separator (scrubber) to remove any free liquids and/or entrained solids The sour gas then enters the bottom of the absorber column and flows upward through the absorber in
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47 Acid gas
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Rich solution Cooler Regenator (low pressure, boiling)
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Absorber (high pressure, low temperature) Gas and acid gas
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FIGURE 27 The amine (olamine) process for gas sweetening
intimate counter-current contact with the aqueous amine solution, where the amine absorbs acid gas constituents from the gas stream Sweetened gas leaving the top of the absorber passes through an outlet separator and then flows to a dehydration unit (and compression unit, if necessary) before being considered ready for sale In many units the rich amine solution is sent from the bottom of the absorber to a flash tank to recover hydrocarbons that may have dissolved or condensed in the amine solution in the absorber The rich solvent is then preheated before entering the top of the stripper column The amine amine heat exchanger serves as heat conservation device and lowers total heat requirements for the process A part of the absorbed acid gases will be flashed from the heated rich solution on the top tray of the stripper The remainder of the rich solution flows downward through the stripper in counter-current contact with vapor generated in the reboiler The reboiler vapor (primarily steam) strips the acid gases from the rich solution The acid gases and the steam leave the top of the stripper and pass overhead through a condenser, where the major portion of the steam is condensed and cooled The acid gases are separated in the separator and sent to the flare or to processing The condensed steam is returned to the top of the stripper as reflux Lean amine solution from the bottom of the stripper column is pumped through an amine amine heat exchanger and then through a cooler before being introduced to the top of the absorber column The amine cooler serves to lower the lean amine temperature to the 100 F range Higher temperatures of the lean amine solution will result in excessive amine losses through vaporization and also lower acid gas carrying capacity in the solution because of temperature effects
272 Physical Solvent Processes At present two of the most widely used physical solvent processes for gas cleaning are Selexol and Rectisol processes The Selexol process solvent is the dimethyl ether of polyethylene glycol, while the Rectisol solvent is methanol
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