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CHAPTER TWO
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to enhance the methanol recovery The IFPEXOL-2 process for acid gas removal is very similar to an amine-type process except for the operating temperatures The absorber operates below 20 F to minimize methanol losses, and the regenerator operates at about 90 psi Cooling is required on the regenerator condenser to recover the methanol This process usually follows the IFPEXOL-1 process so excessive hydrocarbon absorption is not as great a problem (Minkkinen and Jonchere, 1997)
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275 Carbonate-Washing and Water-Washing Processes Carbonate washing is a mild alkali process for emission control by the removal of acid gases (such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide) from gas streams (Speight, 1993, 2007b) and uses the principle that the rate of absorption of carbon dioxide by potassium carbonate increases with temperature It has been demonstrated that the process works best near the temperature of reversibility of the reactions: K2CO3 + CO2 + H2O 2KHCO3 K2CO3 + H2S KHS + KHCO3 Water washing, in terms of the outcome, is analogous to washing with potassium carbonate (Kohl and Riesenfeld, 1985), and it is also possible to carry out the desorption step by pressure reduction The absorption is purely physical and there is also a relatively high absorption of hydrocarbons, which are liberated at the same time as the acid gases The process using potassium phosphate is known as phosphate desulphurization, and it is used in the same way as the Girbotol process to remove acid gases from liquid hydrocarbons as well as from gas streams The treatment solution is a water solution of tripotassium phosphate (K3PO4), which is circulated through an absorber tower and a reactivator tower in much the same way as the ethanolamine is circulated in the Girbotol process; the solution is regenerated thermally Other processes include the Alkazid process (Fig 210), which removes hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide using concentrated aqueous solutions of amino acids The hot
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FIGURE 210 The Alkazid process flow diagram Speight, J G: Gas Processing: Environmental Aspects and Methods, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, England, 1993
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NATURAL GAS
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53 Acid gas
230 F/110 C 200 400 psi
Absorber Lean solution
Stripper 240 250 F/ 115 120 C 2 10 psi Steam
Sweet gas Sour gas
Rich solution
FIGURE 211 The Hot Potassium Carbonate process flow diagram Speight, J G: Gas Processing: Environmental Aspects and Methods, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, England, 1993
potassium carbonate process (Fig 211) decreases the acid content of natural and refinery gas from as much as 50 percent to as low as 05 percent and operates in a unit similar to that used for amine treating The Giammarco-Vetrocoke process is used for hydrogen sulfide and/or carbon dioxide removal (Fig 212) In the hydrogen sulfide removal section, the reagent consists of sodium or potassium carbonates containing a mixture of arsenites and arsenates; the carbon dioxide removal section utilizes hot aqueous alkali carbonate solution activated by arsenic trioxide or selenous acid or tellurous acid
Gas Condenser CO2 CO2 absorber Solution cooler Flash drum Hot gas Reflux drum Steam condensate Regenerator CO2
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FIGURE 212 The Giammarco-Vetrocoke process flow diagram Speight, J G: Gas Processing: Environmental Aspects and Methods, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, England, 1993
CHAPTER TWO
Molecular sieves are highly selective for the removal of hydrogen sulfide (as well as other sulfur compounds) from gas streams and over continuously high absorption efficiency They are also an effective means of water removal and thus offer a process for the simultaneous dehydration and desulphurization of gas Gas that has excessively high water content may require upstream dehydration, however The molecular sieve process (Fig 213) is similar to the iron oxide process Regeneration of the bed is achieved by passing heated clean gas over the bed
Sour gas Flare
Sweetening Bed heater
Heating
Cooling
Sweet gas
FIGURE 213 The molecular sieve process flow diagram Speight, J G: Gas Processing: Environmental Aspects and Methods, Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, England, 1993
The molecular sieves are susceptible to poisoning by such chemicals as glycols and require thorough gas-cleaning methods before the adsorption step Alternatively, the sieve can be offered some degree of protection by the use of guard beds in which a less expensive catalyst is placed in the gas stream before contact of the gas with the sieve, thereby protecting the catalyst from poisoning This concept is analogous to the use of guard beds or attrition catalysts in the petroleum industry (Speight, 1993, 2007b) Until recently, the use of membranes for gas separation has been limited to carbon dioxide removal (Alderton, 1993) Improvements in membrane technology have now made membranes competitive in other applications in the natural gas area New membrane materials and configurations exhibit superior performance and offer improved stability against contaminants found in natural gas The new membranes are targeted at three separations: nitrogen, carbon dioxide/hydrogen sulfide, and natural gas liquids (Baker et al, 2002) The process uses a two-step membrane system design; the methane-selective membranes do not need to be operated at low temperatures, and capital and operating costs are within economically acceptable limits New membranes have been developed (Lokhandwala and Jacobs, 2000) for the gas industry For example, the membranes allow permeation of condensable vapors, such as C3+ hydrocarbons, aromatics, and water vapor, while rejecting the noncondensable gases,
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