Fuel gases Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) Aviation gasoline in Visual C#

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Fuel gases Liquified petroleum gas (LPG) Aviation gasoline
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Crude oil (0) Gas separation Hydrodesulfur Desalting Light crude oil distillate (2) Light SR naphtha (3) Heavy SR naphtha (4)
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Automotive gasoline
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Atmospheric SR kerosene (5) distillation SR middle distillate (6) Desalted crude oil (1) SR gas oil (7)
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Catalytic hydrocracking
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Jet fuels Kerosene Solvents Distillate fuel oils Diesel fuel oils
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Lt vacuum distillate (19) Catalytic cracking Vacuum distillation Hvy vacuum distillate (20) Atmospheric tower residue (8) Vacuum tower residue (21) Solvent deasphalting Asphalt Coking Hydrotreating Lube feedstock (20) Solvent extraction Raffinate (3) Solvent dewaxing
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Lt cat cracked distillate (24) Hvy vacuum distillate (20) Hvy cat cracked distillate (26) Cat cracked Residual clarified oil (27) treating and Thermally cracked blending residue (31) Vacuum residue (21) Atmospheric tower residue (8) Dewaxed oil (raffinate) Deoiled wax Hydrotreating and blending
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Residual fuel oils
Lubricants Greases Waxes
FIGURE 31
Schematic overview of a refinery
FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL
TABLE 31 Crude Petroleum Is a Mixture of Compounds That Can Be Separated into Different Generic Boiling Fractions Boiling range* Fraction Light naphtha Gasoline Heavy naphtha Kerosene Light gas oil Heavy gas oil Lubricating oil Vacuum gas oil Residuum C 1 150 1 180 150 205 205 260 260 315 315 425 >400 425 600 >510 F 30 300 30 355 300 400 400 500 400 600 600 800 >750 800 1100 >950
*For convenience, boiling ranges are converted to the nearest 5 C
To convert crude oil into desired products in an economically feasible and environmentally acceptable manner Refinery process for crude oil are generally divided into three categories: (a) separation processes, of which distillation is the prime example; (b) conversion processes, of which coking and catalytic cracking are prime example; and (c) finishing processes, of which hydrotreating to remove sulfur is a prime example The simplest refinery configuration is the topping refinery, which is designed to prepare feedstocks for petrochemical manufacture or for production of industrial fuels in remote oil-production areas The topping refinery consists of tankage, a distillation unit, recovery facilities for gases and light hydrocarbons, and the necessary utility systems (steam, power, and water-treatment plants) Topping refineries produce large quantities of unfinished oils and are highly dependent on local markets, but the addition of hydrotreating and reforming units to this basic configuration results in a more flexible hydroskimming refinery, which can also produce desulfurized distillate fuels and high-octane gasoline These refineries may produce up to half of their output as residual fuel oil, and face increasing market loss as the demand for low-sulfur (even no-sulfur) fuel oil increases The most versatile refinery configuration today for fuel production is the conversion refinery A conversion refinery incorporates all the basic units found in both the topping and hydroskimming refineries, but it also features gas oil conversion plants such as catalytic cracking and hydrocracking units, olefin conversion plants such as alkylation or polymerization units, and, frequently, coking units for sharply reducing or eliminating the production of residual fuels Modern conversion refineries may produce two-thirds of their output as unleaded gasoline, with the balance distributed between liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel, diesel fuel, and a small quantity of coke Many such refineries also incorporate solvent extraction processes for manufacturing lubricants and petrochemical units with which to recover propylene, benzene, toluene, and xylene for further processing into polymers Finally, the yields and quality of refined petroleum products produced by any given oil refinery depends on the mixture of crude oil used as feedstock and the configuration of the refinery facilities Light/sweet crude oil is generally more expensive and has inherent great yields of higher value low-boiling products such as naphtha, gasoline, jet fuel, kerosene, and diesel fuel Heavy sour crude oil is generally less expensive and produces greater yields of lower value high-boiling products that must be converted into low-boiling products This chapter presents an overview of petroleum refining in order for the reader to place each process in the correct context of fuels production
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