THREE in C#.NET

Reader Code128 in C#.NET THREE

CHAPTER THREE
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32 PETROLEUM RECOVERY
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Petroleum is recovered from reservoir by various methods, the most advantageous of which is the use of the inherent reservoir energy that allows the petroleum to flow to the surface (Speight, 2007) However, the production rates from reservoirs depend on a number of factors, such as reservoir pressure, rock type, and permeability, fluid saturations and properties, extent of fracturing, number of wells, and their locations Primary oil recovery depends on the natural energy contained in the reservoir to drive the oil through the complex pore network to producing wells The driving energy may come from liquid expansion and evolution of gas dissolved in the oil as reservoir pressure is lowered during production, expansion of free gas in a gas cap, influx of natural water from an aquifer, or combinations of these effects The recovery efficiency for primary production is generally low when liquid expansion and solution gas evolution are the driving mechanisms Higher recoveries are associated with reservoirs having water or gas cap drives and from reservoirs where gravity effectively promotes drainage of the oil from the pores Eventually, the natural drive energy is dissipated When this occurs, energy must be supplied to the reservoir to produce additional oil Secondary oil recovery involves introducing energy into a reservoir by injecting gas or water under pressure The injected fluids maintain reservoir pressure and displace a portion of the remaining crude oil to production wells Waterflooding is the principal secondary recovery method and currently accounts for almost half of the US daily oil production Limited use is made of gas injection because of the value of the natural gas However, when gravity drainage is effective, pressure maintenance by gas injection can be very efficient Certain reservoir systems, such as those with very viscous oils and low permeability or geologically complex reservoirs, respond poorly to conventional secondary recovery techniques In these reservoirs improved geologic understanding and use of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) operations should be employed as early as possible Conventional primary and secondary recovery processes, at existing levels of field development, will ultimately produce about one-third of the original oil in place (OOIP) in discovered reservoirs For individual reservoirs the recovery ranges from the extremes of less than 5 percent to as much as 80 percent of the OOIP The range chiefly reflects the degree of reservoir complexity or heterogeneity The more complex the reservoir, the lower the achievable recovery Of the remaining two-thirds of original oil in place in domestic reservoirs, a portion of this oil can be recovered through advanced secondary recovery methods involving improved sweep efficiency in poorly swept zones of the reservoirs For these reservoirs, well placement and completion techniques need to be pursued consistent with the degree of reservoir heterogeneity Such improved secondary oil recovery can be accomplished using advanced geologic models of complex reservoirs The balance of the remaining two-thirds of unrecovered oil is oil that is or will be residual to efficient sweep by secondary recovery processes Portions of this residual oil can be recovered by tertiary or enhanced oil recovery methods The intent of enhanced oil recovery methods is to increase ultimate oil production beyond that achieved by primary and secondary recovery methods by increasing the volume of rock contacted by the injected fluids (improving the sweep efficiency), reducing the residual oil remaining in the swept zones (increasing the displacement efficiency), or by reducing the viscosity of heavier oils Current enhanced oil recovery methods can be broadly grouped into three categories: (a) thermal methods, (b) miscible methods, and (c) chemical methods (Speight, 2007 and references cited therein) These processes differ considerably in complexity, the physical mechanisms responsible for oil recovery, and maturity of the technology derived from field
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