THREE in C#.NET

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CHAPTER THREE
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To vacuum system
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Vacuum tower Residuum Furnace
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FIGURE 34 A vacuum distillation unit
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Vacuum gas oil
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Lubricating oils
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Vacuum residuum
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vacuum tower, the units are necessarily of a larger diameter than the atmospheric units Some vacuum distillation units have diameters on the order of 45 ft (14 m) By this means, a heavy gas oil may be obtained as an overhead product at temperatures of about 150 C (302 F), and lubricating oil cuts may be obtained at temperatures of 250 to 350 C (482 662 F), feed and residue temperatures being kept below the temperature of 350 C (662 F), above which cracking will occur The partial pressure of the hydrocarbons is effectively reduced still further by the injection of steam The steam added to the column, principally for the stripping of asphalt in the base of the column, is superheated in the convection section of the heater The fractions obtained by vacuum distillation of the reduced crude (atmospheric residuum) from an atmospheric distillation unit depend on whether or not the unit is designed to produce lubricating or vacuum gas oils In the former case, the fractions include (a) heavy gas oil, which is an overhead product and is used as catalytic cracking stock or, after suitable treatment, a light lubricating oil; (b) lubricating oil (usually three fractions light, intermediate, and heavy), which is obtained as a side-stream product; and (c) asphalt (or residuum), which is the bottom product and may be used directly as, or to produce, asphalt and which may also be blended with gas oils to produce a heavy fuel oil 333 Thermal Processes Cracking distillation (thermal decomposition with simultaneous removal of distillate) was recognized as a means of producing the valuable lighter product (kerosene) from heavier nonvolatile materials In the early days of the process (1870 1900) the technique was very simple a batch of crude oil was heated until most of the kerosene had been distilled from it and the overhead material had become dark in color At this point distillation was discontinued and the heavy oils were held in the hot zone, during which time some of the high-molecular-weight components were decomposed to produce low-molecular-weight products After a suitable time, distillation was continued to yield light oil (kerosene) instead of the heavy oil that would otherwise have been produced
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FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL
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Thermal Cracking One of the earliest conversion processes used in the petroleum industry is the thermal decomposition of higher boiling materials into lower boiling products The heavier oils produced by cracking are light and heavy gas oils as well as a residual oil which could also be used as heavy fuel oil Gas oils from catalytic cracking were suitable for domestic and industrial fuel oils or as diesel fuels when blended with straight-run gas oils The gas oils produced by cracking were also a further important source of gasoline In a once-through cracking operation all of the cracked material is separated into products and may be used as such However, the gas oils produced by cracking (cracked gas oils) are more resistant to cracking (more refractory) than gas oils produced by distillation (straightrun gas oils) but could still be cracked to produce more gasoline This was achieved using a later innovation (post-1940) involving a recycle operation in which the cracked gas oil was combined with fresh feed for another trip through the cracking unit The extent to which recycling was carried out affected the yield of gasoline from the process The majority of the thermal cracking processes use temperatures of 455 to 540 C (851 1004 F) and pressures of 100 to 1000 psi; the Dubbs process may be taken as a typical application of an early thermal cracking operation The feedstock (reduced crude) is preheated by direct exchange with the cracking products in the fractionating columns Cracked gasoline and heating oil are removed from the upper section of the column Light and heavy distillate fractions are removed from the lower section and are pumped to separate heaters Higher temperatures are used to crack the more refractory light distillate fraction The streams from the heaters are combined and sent to a soaking chamber where additional time is provided to complete the cracking reactions The cracked products are then separated in a low-pressure flash chamber where a heavy fuel oil is removed as bottoms The remaining cracked products are sent to the fractionating columns Visbreaking Visbreaking (viscosity breaking) is essentially a process of the post-1940 era and was initially introduced as a mild thermal cracking operation that could be used to reduce the viscosity of residua to allow the products to meet fuel oil specifications Alternatively, the visbroken residua could be blended with lighter product oils to produce fuel oils of acceptable viscosity By reducing the viscosity of the residuum, visbreaking reduces the amount of light heating oil that is required for blending to meet the fuel oil specifications In addition to the major product, fuel oil, material in the gas oil and gasoline boiling range is produced The gas oil may be used as additional feed for catalytic cracking units, or as heating oil In a typical visbreaking operation (Fig 35), a crude oil residuum is passed through a furnace where it is heated to a temperature of 480 C (896 F) under an outlet pressure of about 100 psi The heating coils in the furnace are arranged to provide a soaking section of low heat density, where the charge remains until the visbreaking reactions are completed and the cracked products are then passed into a flash-distillation chamber The overhead material from this chamber is then fractionated to produce a low-quality gasoline as an overhead product and light gas oil as bottom The liquid products from the flash chamber are cooled with a gas oil flux and then sent to a vacuum fractionator This yields a heavy gas oil distillate and a residual tar of reduced viscosity Coking Coking is a thermal process for the continuous conversion of heavy, low-grade oils into lighter products Unlike visbreaking, coking involved compete thermal conversion of the feedstock into volatile products and coke (Table 32) The feedstock is typically a residuum and the products are gases, naphtha, fuel oil, gas oil, and coke The gas oil may be the major product of a coking operation and serves primarily as a feedstock for catalytic cracking units The coke obtained is usually used as fuel but specialty uses, such as electrode manufacture, production of chemicals and metallurgic coke are also possible and increases the value of the coke For these uses, the coke may require treatment to remove sulfur and metal impurities
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