FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL in Visual C#.NET

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75 Coke gas to sulfur removal Fines removal
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Air Steam
FIGURE 38 Flexicoking process
TABLE 33
Summary of Catalytic Cracking Processes
Conditions Solid acidic catalyst (silica-alumina, zeolite, etc) Temperature: 480 540 C (896 1004 F) (solid/vapor contact) Pressure: 10 20 psi Provisions needed for continuous catalyst replacement with heavier feedstocks (residua) Catalyst may be regenerated or replaced Feedstocks Gas oils and residua Residua pretreated to remove salts (metals) Residua pretreated to remove high molecular weight (asphaltic constituents) Products Lower molecular weight than feedstock Some gases (feedstock and process parameters dependent) Isoparaffins in product Coke deposited on catalyst Variations Fixed bed Moving bed Fluidized bed
CHAPTER THREE
thermally cracked gasoline Substantial quantities of olefinic gases suitable for polymer gasoline manufacture and smaller quantities of methane, ethane, and ethylene are produced by catalytic cracking Sulfur compounds are changed in such a way that the sulfur content of catalytically cracked gasoline is lower than in thermally cracked gasoline Catalytic cracking produces less heavy residual or tar and more of the useful gas oils than does thermal cracking The process has considerable flexibility, permitting the manufacture of both motor and aviation gasoline and a variation in the gas oil yield to meet changes in the fuel oil market The several processes currently employed in catalytic cracking differ mainly in the method of catalyst handling, although there is overlap with regard to catalyst type and the nature of the products The catalyst, which may be an activated natural or synthetic material, is employed in bead, pellet, or microspherical form and can be used as a fixed bed, moving bed, or fluid bed The fixed bed process was the first process to be used commercially and uses a static bed of catalyst in several reactors, which allows a continuous flow of feedstock to be maintained Thus, the cycle of operations consists of (a) flow of feedstock through the catalyst bed, (b) discontinuance of feedstock flow and removal of coke from the catalyst by burning, and (c) insertion of the reactor on stream The moving bed process uses a reaction vessel (in which cracking takes place) and a kiln (in which the spent catalyst is regenerated) and catalyst movement between the vessels is provided by various means The fluid bed process (Fig 39) differs from the fixed bed and moving bed processes, insofar as the powdered catalyst is circulated essentially as a fluid with the feedstock The several fluid catalytic cracking processes in use differ primarily in mechanical design Side-by-side reactor-regenerator construction along with unitary vessel construction (the reactor either above or below the regenerator) is the two main mechanical variations
Cold water Waste heat boiler Flue gas (to final dust collection) Regenerator Stripping steam Regen catalyst Fresh feed Spent catalyst Air Air blower Slurry settler Wash oil Recycle Slurry decant oil Heavy gas oil Fractionator Reactor Gas to recovery Water Gasoline Light gas oil
FIGURE 39 A fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) unit
FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL
Natural clays have long been known to exert a catalytic influence on the cracking of oils, but it was not until about 1936 that the process using silica-alumina catalysts was developed sufficiently for commercial use Since then, catalytic cracking has progressively supplanted thermal cracking as the most advantageous means of converting distillate oils into gasoline The main reason for the wide adoption of catalytic cracking is the fact that a better yield of higher octane gasoline can be obtained than by any known thermal operation At the same time the gas produced consists mostly of propane and butane with less methane and ethane The production of heavy oils and tars, higher in molecular weight than the charge material, is also minimized, and both the gasoline and the uncracked cycle oil are more saturated than the products of thermal cracking Cracking crude oil fractions to produce fuels occurs over many types of catalytic materials, but high yields of desirable products are obtained with hydrated aluminum silicates These may be either activated (acid-treated) natural clays of the bentonite type of synthesized silica-alumina or silica-magnesia preparations Their activity to yield essentially the same products may be enhanced to some extent by the incorporation of small amounts of other materials such as the oxides of zirconium, boron (which has a tendency to volatilize away on use), and thorium Natural and synthetic catalysts can be used as pellets or beads and also in the form of powder; in either case replacements are necessary because of attrition and gradual loss of efficiency It is essential that they be stable to withstand the physical impact of loading and thermal shocks, and that they withstand the action of carbon dioxide, air, nitrogen compounds, and steam They also should be resistant to sulfur and nitrogen compounds and synthetic catalysts, or certain selected clays, appear to be better in this regard than average untreated natural catalysts The catalysts are porous and highly adsorptive and their performance is affected markedly by the method of preparation Two chemically identical catalysts having pores of different size and distribution may have different activity, selectivity, temperature coefficients of reaction rates, and responses to poisons The intrinsic chemistry and catalytic action of a surface may be independent of pore size but small pores produce different effects because of the manner in which hydrocarbon vapors are transported in and out of the pore systems
335 Hydroprocesses Hydroprocesses use the principle that the presence of hydrogen during a thermal reaction of a petroleum feedstock will terminate many of the coke-forming reactions and enhance the yields of the lower boiling components such as gasoline, kerosene, and jet fuel (Table 34) Hydrogenation processes for the conversion of petroleum fractions and petroleum products may be classified as destructive and nondestructive Destructive hydrogenation (hydrogenolysis or hydrocracking) is characterized by the conversion of the higher molecular weight constituents in a feedstock to lower boiling products Such treatment requires severe processing conditions and the use of high hydrogen pressures to minimize polymerization and condensation reactions that lead to coke formation Nondestructive or simple hydrogenation is generally used for the purpose of improving product quality without appreciable alteration of the boiling range Mild processing conditions are employed so that only the more unstable materials are attacked Nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen compounds undergo reaction with the hydrogen to remove ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and water, respectively Unstable compounds which might lead to the formation of gums, or insoluble materials, are converted to more stable compounds
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