CONVENTIONAL FUEL SOURCES in Visual C#

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11 CONVENTIONAL FUEL SOURCES
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For the purposes of this book, petroleum is recognized as the prominent conventional fuel source Thus, in the context of the definition of an alternative fuel or synthetic fuel that is defined in the context of substitutes for petroleum-based fuel the term conventional fuel implies any available fuel derived from petroleum Petroleum and the equivalent term crude oil cover a vast assortment of materials that consist of gaseous, liquid, and solid hydrocarbon-type chemical compounds that occur in sedimentary deposits throughout the world (Speight, 2007) When petroleum occurs in a reservoir that allows the crude material to be recovered by pumping operations as a freeflowing dark- to light-colored liquid, it is often referred to as conventional petroleum The US Congress has defined tar sands as the several rock types that contain an extremely viscous hydrocarbon which is not recoverable in its natural state by conventional oil well production methods including currently used enhanced recovery techniques (US Congress, 1976) By inference, heavy oil, which can be recovered in its natural state by conventional oil-well production methods including currently used enhanced recovery techniques does not fall into the same category as tar sand bitumen and therefore is a type of petroleum Thus, heavy oil is a type of petroleum that is different from conventional petroleum insofar the flow properties are reduced and a heavy oil is much more difficult to recover from the subsurface reservoir These materials have a high viscosity (and low API [American Petroleum Institute] gravity) relative to the viscosity (and API gravity) of conventional petroleum and recovery of heavy oil usually requires thermal stimulation of the reservoir (Speight, 2007 and references cited therein) The definition of heavy oil is usually based on the API gravity or viscosity but the definition is quite arbitrary Although there have been attempts to rationalize the definition based upon viscosity, API gravity, and density (Speight, 2007) such definitions based on physical properties are inadequate and a more precise definition should involve some reference to the recovery method However, in a very general sense (and not in any sense meant to indicate classification of heavy oil), the term heavy oil is often applied to a petroleum that has a gravity greater than 20oAPI, and usually, but not always, a sulfur content higher than 2 percent w/w Furthermore, in contrast to conventional crude oil, heavy oil is darker in color and may even be black The term heavy oil has also been arbitrarily used to describe the heavy oil that requires thermal stimulation of recovery from the reservoir and (albeit incorrectly) the bitumen in bituminous sand (tar sand, oil sand) formations from which the highly viscous bituminous material is recovered by a mining operation (Chap 4) Petroleum varies widely in composition and variations of the composition of heavy oil add further complexity to the use of these feedstocks in the production of liquid fuels The variations in composition are generally reflected in variations in the API gravity, viscosity,
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FUEL SOURCES
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and potential for coke formation in thermal process, to mention only three of the affected properties In addition to the organic constituents, there are also metal-containing constituents (notably those compounds that contain vanadium and nickel) which usually occur in the more viscous crude oil in amounts up to several hundred parts per million Physical methods of fractionation of petroleum and heavy oil can be achieved to produce four bulk generic fractions: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes (Speight, 2001) Relative amounts of these fractions have often been equated to the behavior of petroleum or heavy-oil feedstocks during recovery and refining (Speight, 2007)
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12 NONCONVENTIONAL FUEL SOURCES
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Nonconventional fuel sources are sources of fuels (alternate or synthetic fuels) other than traditional petroleum (Tables 12 13) (Cooke, 2005) Gaseous, liquid, or solid synthetic fuels are obtained by converting a carbonaceous material to another form The most abundant naturally occurring materials suitable for this purpose are (a) tar sand, (b) coal, and (c) oil shale The conversion of these raw materials to synthetic fuels can replace depleted, unavailable, or costly supplies of natural fuels Biomass is another carbonaceous material that can also be converted to synthetic fuels the fermentation of grain to produce alcohol is the best-known example Wood is also an abundant and accessible source of bio-energy and the procedures for the gasification of cellulosic materials have much in common with the conversion of coal to gas Currently, nonconventional oil production is less efficient and some types have a larger environmental impact relative to conventional oil production Nonconventional types of production include: tar sand, coal, oil shale, and biofuels as well as liquid fuels from natural gas through processes such as the Fischer-Tropsch process These nonconventional sources of oil may be increasingly relied upon as fuel for transportation as the price of conventional petroleum increases and supplies dwindle However, conventional sources of liquid fuels from petroleum are currently preferred because they provide a much higher ratio of extracted energy over energy used in extraction and refining processes Technology, such as using steam injection in heavy oil reservoirs continues to serve as a means of extracting heavy oil while mining serves as the only commercial production of tar sand bitumen
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TABLE 12 Differences between Conventional and Nonconventional Oil (see also Table 13)
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Nonconventional oil Tar sand immobile in the natural state, viscous, near solid Many wells flow on their own, or otherwise are Must be mined, or heated-decomposed and then produced by pumping pumped Wells often produce water that must be Requires up to 3 bbl of water for every barrel of disposed of oil produced Nearing peak oil Largely untapped resource High discovery cost; relatively low production Locations known; relatively high production cost cost Production quickly ramps up, peaks, and declines Steady production for next 100 years Reserves primarily outside North America Extensive reserves in United States, Canada, Venezuela Often influences foreign policy Allows energy independence
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