FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL in Visual C#

Decoding Code128 in Visual C# FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL

FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL
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Olefins can also be conveniently polymerized by means of an acid catalyst (Fig 315) Thus, the treated, olefin-rich feed stream is contacted with a catalyst (sulfuric acid, copper pyrophosphate, phosphoric acid) at 150 to 220 C (302 428 F) and 150 to 1200 psi (10 81 atm), depending on feedstock and product requirement
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Quench C3/C4 olefin feed Recycle drum Stabilizer Flash drum
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C3/C4
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Feed drum
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Recycle Poly gasoline
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FIGURE 315 A polymerization unit
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Phosphates are the principal catalysts used in polymerization units; the commercially used catalysts are liquid phosphoric acid, phosphoric acid on kieselguhr, copper pyrophosphate pellets, and phosphoric acid film on quartz The latter is the least active, but the most used and easiest one to regenerate simply by washing and recoating; the serious disadvantage is that tar must occasionally be burned off the support The process using liquid phosphoric acid catalyst is far more responsible to attempt to raise production by increasing temperature than the other processes
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3310 Deasphalting Solvent deasphalting processes are a major part of refinery operations (Bland and Davidson, 1967; Hobson and Pohl, 1973; Gary and Handwerk, 1994; Speight and Ozum, 2002; Speight, 2007) and are not often appreciated for the tasks for which they are used In the solvent deasphalting processes, an alkane is injected into the feedstock to disrupt the dispersion of components and causes the polar constituents to precipitate Propane (or sometimes propane/butane mixtures) is extensively used for deasphalting and produces a deasphalted oil (DAO) and propane deasphalter asphalt (PDA or PD tar) (Dunning and Moore, 1957) Propane has unique solvent properties; at lower temperatures [38 60 C (100 140 F)], paraffins are very soluble in propane and at higher temperatures [about 93 C (199 F)] all hydrocarbons are almost insoluble in propane A solvent deasphalting unit (Fig 316) processes the residuum from the vacuum distillation unit and produces deasphalted oil (DAO), used as feedstock for a fluid catalytic cracking unit, and the asphaltic residue (deasphalter tar, deasphalter bottoms) which, as a residual fraction, can only be used to produce asphalt or as a blend stock or visbreaker feedstock for low-grade fuel oil Solvent deasphalting processes have not realized their maximum
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CHAPTER THREE
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Steam Steam
Steam
Solvent to recovery
Condensate Deasphalter charge Deasphalter Solvent to recovery
Solvent stripper Steam Recovered solvent Deasphalted oil To asphalt recovery
FIGURE 316 Propane deasphalting
potential With ongoing improvements in energy efficiency, such processes would display its effects in a combination with other processes Solvent deasphalting allows removal of sulfur and nitrogen compounds as well as metallic constituents by balancing yield with the desired feedstock properties
3311 Dewaxing Paraffinic crude oils often contain microcrystalline or paraffin waxes The crude oil may be treated with a solvent such as methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) to remove this wax before it is processed This is not a common practice, however and solvent dewaxing processes are designed to remove wax from lubricating oils to give the product good fluidity characteristics at low temperatures (eg, low pour points) rather than from the whole crude oil The mechanism of solvent dewaxing involves either the separation of wax as a solid that crystallizes from the oil solution at low temperature or the separation of wax as a liquid that is extracted at temperatures above the melting point of the wax through preferential selectivity of the solvent However, the former mechanism is the usual basis for commercial dewaxing processes In the solvent dewaxing process (Fig 317) the feedstock is mixed with one to four times its volume of a ketone (Scholten, 1992) The mixture is then heated until the oil is in solution and the solution is chilled at a slow, controlled rate in double-pipe, scraped-surface exchangers Cold solvent, such as filtrate from the filters, passes through the 2-in annular space between the inner and outer pipes and chills the waxy oil solution flowing through the inner 6-in pipe
FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL
Solvent Wash solvent
O Slack wax evaporator Dewaxed oil Dewaxed oil evaporator Heater Stack wax
Heater Rotary filter Chiller Heat exchanger Steam heater
Feed
FIGURE 317 A solvent dewaxing unit
To prevent wax from depositing on the walls of the inner pipe, blades, or scrapers extending the length of the pipe and fastened to a central rotating shaft scrape off the wax Slow chilling reduces the temperature of the waxy oil solution to 2 C (35 F), and then faster chilling reduces the temperature to the approximate pour point required in the dewaxed oil The waxy mixture is pumped to a filter case into which the bottom half of the drum of a rotary vacuum filter dips The drum (8 ft in diameter, 14 ft in length), covered with filter cloth, rotates continuously in the filter case Vacuum within the drum sucks the solvent and the oil dissolved in the solvent through the filter cloth and into the drum Wax crystals collect on the outside of the drum to form a wax cake, and as the drum rotates, the cake is brought above the surface of the liquid in the filter case and under sprays of ketone that wash oil out of the cake and into the drum A knife-edge scrapes off the wax, and the cake falls into the conveyor and is moved from the filter by the rotating scroll The recovered wax is actually a mixture of wax crystals with a little ketone and oil, and the filtrate consists of the dewaxed oil dissolved in a large amount of ketone Ketone is removed from both by distillation, but before the wax is distilled, it is deoiled, mixed with more cold ketone, and pumped to a pair of rotary filters in series, where further washing with cold ketone produces a wax cake that contains very little oil The deoiled wax is melted in heat exchangers and pumped to a distillation tower operated under vacuum, where a large part of the ketone is evaporated or flashed from the wax The rest of the ketone is removed by heating the wax and passing it into a fractional distillation tower operated at atmospheric pressure and then into a stripper where steam removes the last traces of ketone An almost identical system of distillation is used to separate the filtrate into dewaxed oil and ketone The ketone from both the filtrate and wax slurry is reused Clay treatment or hydrotreating finishes the dewaxed oil as previously described The wax (slack wax) even though it contains essentially no oil as compared to 50 percent in the slack wax obtained by cold pressing, is the raw material for either sweating or wax recrystallization, which subdivides the wax into a number of wax fractions with different melting points
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