H2 Isomerization and/or benzene saturation Straight-run or hydrocracked light gasoline or isomerate in C#

Scanner Code-128 in C# H2 Isomerization and/or benzene saturation Straight-run or hydrocracked light gasoline or isomerate

H2 Isomerization and/or benzene saturation Straight-run or hydrocracked light gasoline or isomerate
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Straight-run light gasoline
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Reformate Reformer
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Hydrocracked light gasoline Hydrocracker Hydrocracked To distillate fuel blending gasoil Propylene (C3) FCC heavy cycle oil Isobutane (C4) Butylenes/Amylenes (C4/C5) H2 FCC feed hydrotreater Butylenes/Amylenes (C4/C5) MeOH/EtOH FCC gasoline hydrotreater or sweetener FCC light gasoil Alkylation Alkylate Motor gasoline blending
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Polymerization Polymerized gasoline
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Blocked to FCC or hydrocracker
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FIGURE 318
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Straight-run heavy gasoil Atmospheric Vacuum Light vacuum bottoms distillation gasoil Heavy vacuum gasoil
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Rejected (C4/C5)
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MTBE/TAME/ETBE
FCC light gasoline FCC heavy gasoline To distillate fuel blending
Heavy gasoil Light gasoil Vacuum resid Coker Heavy gasoline Light gasoline Coke To distillate fuel blending To top of page
Gasoline is the final product after blending several refinery streams
FUELS FROM PETROLEUM AND HEAVY OIL
Despite the diversity of the processes within a modern petroleum refinery, no single stream meets all the requirements of gasoline Thus, the final step in gasoline manufacture is blending the various streams into a finished product (Fig 318) It is not uncommon for the finished gasoline to be made up of six or more streams and several factors make this flexibility critical: (a) the requirements of the gasoline specification (ASTM D 4814) and the regulatory requirements and (b) performance specifications that are subject to local climatic conditions and regulations Aviation gasoline is form of motor gasoline that has been especially prepared for use for aviation piston engines and is composed of paraffins and isoparaffins (50 60 percent), moderate amounts of naphthenes (20 30 percent), small amounts of aromatics (10 percent), and usually no olefins, whereas motor gasoline may contain up to 30 percent olefins and up to 40 percent aromatics It has an octane number suited to the engine, a freezing point of 60 C ( 76 F), and a distillation range usually within the limits of 30 to 180 C (86 356 F) compared to 1 to 200 C (30 to 390 F) for automobile gasoline The narrower boiling range of aviation gasoline ensures better distribution of the vaporized fuel through the more complicated induction systems of aircraft engines Aircraft operate at altitudes at which the prevailing pressure is less than the pressure at the surface of the earth (pressure at 17,500 ft is 75 psi compared to 147 psi at the surface of the earth) Thus, the vapor pressure of aviation gasoline must be limited to reduce boiling in the tanks, fuel lines, and carburetors Thus, the aviation gasoline does not usually contain the gaseous hydrocarbons (butanes) that give automobile gasoline the higher vapor pressures Under conditions of use in aircraft, olefins have a tendency to form gum, cause preignition, and have relatively poor antiknock characteristics under lean mixture (cruising) conditions; for these reasons olefins are detrimental to aviation gasoline Aromatics have excellent antiknock characteristics under rich mixture (takeoff) conditions, but are much like the olefins under lean mixture conditions; hence the proportion of aromatics in aviation gasoline is limited Some naphthenes with suitable boiling temperatures are excellent aviation gasoline components but are not segregated as such in refinery operations They are usually natural components of the straight-run naphtha (aviation base stocks) used in blending aviation gasoline The lower boiling paraffins (pentane and hexane), and both the high-boiling and low-boiling isoparaffins (isopentane to isooctane) are excellent aviation gasoline components These hydrocarbons have high heat contents per pound and are chemically stable, and the isoparaffins have high octane numbers under both lean and rich mixture conditions Gasoline performance and hence quality of an automobile gasoline is determined by its resistance to knock, for example, detonation or ping during service The antiknock quality of the fuel limits the power and economy that an engine using that fuel can produce: the higher the antiknock quality of the fuel, the more the power and efficiency of the engine Thus, the performance ability of gasoline is measured by the octane number Octane numbers are obtained by the two test procedures, those obtained by the first method are called motor octane numbers (indicative of high-speed performance) (ASTM D-2700 and ASTM D-2723) Those obtained by the second method are called research octane numbers (indicative of normal road performance) (ASTM D-2699 and ASTM D-2722) Octane numbers quoted are usually, unless stated otherwise, research octane numbers In the test methods used to determine the antiknock properties of gasoline, comparisons are made with blends of two pure hydrocarbons, n-heptane and isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) Isooctane has an octane number of 100 and is high in its resistance to knocking; n-heptane is quite low (with an octane number of 0) in its resistance to knocking Extensive studies of the octane numbers of individual hydrocarbons have brought to light some general rules For example, normal paraffins have the least desirable knocking characteristics, and these become progressively worse as the molecular weight increases
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