FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN in Visual C#.NET

Scanner Code 128C in Visual C#.NET FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN

FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN
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composition of the Alberta bitumen does not appear to be influenced by the proportion of bitumen in the tar sand or by the particle size of the tar sand minerals Of the data that are available for bitumen, the proportions of the elements vary over fairly narrow limits: Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Oxygen Sulfur Metals (Ni and V) 834 05% 104 02% 04 02% 10 02% 50 05% >1000 ppm
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The major exception to these narrow limits is the oxygen content of heavy oil and especially bitumen, which can vary from as little as 02 percent to as high as 45 percent This is not surprising, since when oxygen is estimated by difference the analysis is subject to the accumulation of all of the errors in the other elemental data In addition, bitumen is susceptible to aerial oxygen and the oxygen content is very dependent upon the sample history For example, oxidation occurs during separation of the bitumen from the sand as well as when the samples are not protected by a blanket of nitrogen gas The end result of the oxidation process is an increase in viscosity Therefore, bitumen cannot be defined using viscosity or any other property that is susceptible to changes during the sample history Similarly, a sample that is identified as tar sand bitumen without any consideration of the sample history will lead to an erroneous diagnosis Chemical Composition The precise chemical composition of bitumen feedstocks is, despite the large volume of work performed in this area, largely speculative In very general terms (and as observed from elemental analyses), bitumen is a complex mixture of (a) hydrocarbons, (b) nitrogen compounds, (c) oxygen compounds, (d) sulfur compounds, and (e) metallic constituents However, this general definition is not adequate to describe the composition of bitumen as it relates to its behavior Fractional Composition Bitumen can be separated into a variety of fractions using a myriad of different techniques In general, the fractions produced by these different techniques are called by names of convenience, namely: saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes And much of the focus has been on the asphaltene fraction because of its high sulfur content and high coke-forming propensity The use of composition data to model feedstock behavior during refining is becoming increasingly important in refinery operations Bitumen composition varies depending on the locale within a deposit due to the immobility of the bitumen at formation conditions However, whether or not this is a general phenomenon for all tar sand deposits is unknown The available evidence is specific to the Athabasca deposit For example, bitumen obtained from the northern locales of the Athabasca deposit (Bitumount, Mildred-Ruth Lakes) has a lower amount (approximately 16 20 percent by weight) of the nonvolatile asphaltene fraction than the bitumen obtained from southern deposits (Abasand, Hangingstone River; approximately 22 23 percent by weight of asphaltenes) In addition, other data indicate that there is also a marked variation of asphaltene content in the tar sand bitumen with depth in the particular deposit Oxidation of bitumen with common oxidising agents, such as acid and alkaline peroxide, acid dichromate, and alkaline permanganate, occurs Oxidation bitumen in solution, by air, and in either the presence or absence of a metal salt, also occurs
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CHAPTER FOUR
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Thus, changes in the fractional composition can occur due to oxidation of the bitumen during separation, handling, or storage Similar chemical reactions (oxidation) will also occur in heavy oil giving rise to the perception that the sample is bitumen
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432 Properties The specific gravity of bitumen shows a fairly wide range of variation The largest degree of variation is usually due to local conditions that affect material lying close to the faces, or exposures, occurring in surface tar sand deposits There are also variations in the specific gravity of the bitumen found in beds that have not been exposed to weathering or other external factors A very important property of the Athabasca bitumen (which also accounts for the success of the hot water separation process) is the variation of bitumen density (specific gravity) of the bitumen with temperature Over the temperature range 30 to 130 C (86 266 F) the bitumen is lighter than water; hence (with aeration) floating of the bitumen on the water is facilitated and the logic of the hot water process is applied The API gravity of known US tar sand bitumen ranges downward from about 14 API (0973 specific gravity) to approximately 2 API (1093 specific gravity) Although only a general relationship exists between density (gravity) and viscosity, very low gravity bitumen generally has very high viscosity For instance, bitumen with a gravity of 5 or 6 API can have viscosity up to 5 million centipoises Elements related to API gravity are viscosity, thermal characteristics, pour point, hydrogen content, and hydrogen-carbon ratio It is also evident that not only are there variations in bitumen viscosity between the major Alberta deposits, but there is also considerable variation of bitumen viscosity within the Athabasca deposit and even within one location These observations are, of course, in keeping with the relatively high proportions of asphaltenes in the denser, highly viscous samples, a trait that appears to vary not only horizontally but also vertically within a deposit The most significant property of bitumen is its immobility under the conditions of temperatures and pressure in the deposit While viscosity may present an indication of the immobility of bitumen, the most pertinent representation of this property is the pour point (ASTM D-97) which is the lowest temperature at which oil will pour or flow when it is chilled without disturbance under definite conditions When used in consideration with reservoir temperature, the pour point gives an indication of the liquidity of the heavy oil or bitumen and, therefore, the ability of the heavy oil or bitumen to flow under reservoir conditions Thus, Athabasca bitumen with a pour point of 50 to 100 C (122 212 F) and a deposit temperature of 4 to 10 C (39 50 F) is a solid or near solid in the deposit and will exhibit little or no mobility under deposit conditions Similar rationale can be applied to the Utah bitumen where pour points of 35 to 60 C (95 140 F) have been recorded for the bitumen with formation temperatures on the order of 10 C (50 F) also indicate a solid bitumen within the deposit and therefore immobility in the deposit On the other hand, the California oils exhibit pour points on the order of 2 to 10 C (35 50 F) at a reservoir temperature of 35 to 38 C (95 100 F) indicates that the oil is in the liquid state in the reservoir and therefore mobile Irrespective of the differences between the various tar sand bitumen the factor that they all have in common is the near-solid or solid nature and therefore immobility of the bitumen in the deposit Conversely, heavy oil in different reservoirs has the commonality of being in the liquid state and therefore mobility in the reservoir In the more localised context of the Athabasca deposit, inconsistencies arise because of the lack of mobility of the bitumen at formation temperature For example, the proportion of bitumen in the tar sand increases with depth within the formation Furthermore, the proportion of asphaltenes in the bitumen or asphaltic fraction (asphaltenes plus resins) also
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