FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN in Visual C#

Scanner Code128 in Visual C# FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN

FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN
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weight of bitumen, and about 50 percent by weight of water After bitumen extraction, the tailings are pumped to a settling basin Coarse tailings settle rapidly and can be restored to a dry surface for reclamation Fine tailings, consisting of slow-settling clay particles and water, are more problematic The US tar sands have received considerably less attention than the Canadian deposits Nevertheless, approaches to recover the bitumen from US tar sands have been made An attempt has been made to develop the hot water process for the Utah sands The process differs significantly from that used for the Canadian sands due to the oil-wet Utah sands contrasting to the water-wet Canadian sands This necessitates disengagement by hot water digestion in a high shear force field under appropriate conditions of pulp density and alkalinity The dispersed bitumen droplets can also be recovered by aeration and froth flotation
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452 In Situ Processes The other aboveground method of separating bitumen from tar sand after the mining operation involves direct heating of the tar sand without previous separation of the bitumen Thus, the bitumen is not recovered as such but is an upgraded product Although several processes have been proposed to accomplish, the common theme is to heat the tar sand to thermally decompose the bitumen to produce a volatile product with the coke remaining on the sand In general, the viscous nature of the bitumen and its immobility in the deposits has precluded other forms of recovery However, bitumen recovery from deep deposits is not economical by a mining method Therefore the bitumen viscosity must be reduced in situ to increase the mobility of bitumen to flow to wellbores that bring the bitumen to the surface Bitumen viscosity can be reduced in situ by increasing reservoir temperature or by injecting solvents Steam-based thermal recovery is the primary recovery method for heavy oil in the Cold Lake and Peace River areas Various steam-based methods have been shown to be inefficient for bitumen but more recently a method known as steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) has been applied to the Athabasca tar sand with success In the process, a pair of horizontal wells, separated vertically by about 15 to 20 ft is drilled at the bottom of a thick unconsolidated sandstone reservoir Steam is injected into the upper well The heat reduces the oil viscosity to values as low as 1 to 10 cP (depending on temperature and initial conditions) and develops a steam chamber that grows vertically and laterally The steam and gases rise because of their low density, and the oil and condensed water are removed through the lower well The gases produced during SAGD tend to be methane with some carbon dioxide and traces of hydrogen sulfide To a small degree, the noncondensable gases tend to remain high in the structure, filling the void space, and even acting as a partial insulating blanket that helps to reduce vertical heat losses as the chamber grows laterally At the pore scales, and at larger scales as well, flow is through counter-current, gravity-driven flow, and a thin and continuous oil film is sustained, giving high recoveries Operating the production and injection wells at approximately the same pressure as the reservoir eliminates viscous fingering and coning processes, and also suppresses water influx or oil loss through permeable streaks This keeps the steam chamber interface relatively sharp, and reduces heat losses considerably Injection pressures are much lower than the fracture gradient, which means that the chances of breaking into a thief zone, an instability problem which plagues all high-pressure steam injection processes, such as cyclic steam soak, are essentially zero Thus, the SAGD process, as for all gravity-driven processes, is extremely stable because the process zone grows only by gravity segregation, and there are no pressure-driven instabilities such as channeling, coning, and fracturing It is vital in the SAGD process to maintain a
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