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Reading Code 128 Code Set B in C#.NET FOUR

CHAPTER FOUR
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In the modified in situ extraction processes, combinations of in situ and mining techniques are used to access the reservoir A portion of the reservoir rock must be removed to enable application of the in situ extraction technology The most common method is to enter the reservoir through a large-diameter vertical shaft, excavate horizontal drifts from the bottom of the shaft, and drill injection and production wells horizontally from the drifts Thermal extraction processes are then applied through the wells When the horizontal wells are drilled at or near the base of the tar sand reservoir, the injected heat rises from the injection wells through the reservoir, and drainage of produced fluids to the production wells is assisted by gravity
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46 UPGRADING, REFINING, AND FUEL PRODUCTION
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The limitations of processing these heavy oil and bitumen depend to a large extent on the amount of nonvolatile higher molecular weight constituents, which also contain the majority of the heteroatoms (ie, nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, and metals such as nickel and vanadium) These constituents are responsible for high yields of thermal and catalytic coke The majority of the metal constituents in crude oils are present as organometallic complexes, such as porphyrins The rest are found in organic or inorganic salts that are soluble in water or in crude In recent years, attempts have been made to isolate and to study the vanadium present in petroleum porphyrins When catalytic processes are employed, complex molecules (such as those that are present in the nonvolatile fraction) or those formed during the process, are not sufficiently mobile (ie, they are strongly adsorbed by the catalyst) to be saturated by hydrogenation The chemistry of the thermal reactions of some of these constituents dictates that certain reactions, once initiated, cannot be reversed and proceed to completion Coke is the eventual product These deposits deactivate the catalyst sites and eventually interfere with the hydroprocess Technologies for upgrading heavy crude feedstocks, such as residua and tar sand bitumen, can be broadly divided into carbon rejection and hydrogen addition processes Carbon rejection processes are those processes in which hydrogen is redistributed among the various components, resulting in fractions with increased hydrogen/carbon atomic ratios (distillates) and fractions with lower hydrogen/carbon atomic ratios (coke) On the other hand, hydrogen addition processes involve the reaction of heavy crude oils with an external source of hydrogen and result in an overall increase in hydrogen/carbon ratio Within these broad ranges, all upgrading technologies can be subdivided as follows: 1 Carbon rejection: Visbreaking, steam cracking, fluid catalytic cracking, coking, and flash pyrolysis 2 Hydrogen addition: Catalytic hydroconversion (hydrocracking) using active hydrodesulfurization catalysts, fixed-bed catalytic hydroconversion, ebullated catalytic-bed hydroconversion, thermal slurry hydroconversion, hydrovisbreaking, hydropyrolysis, donor solvent processes, and supercritical water upgrading 3 Separation processes: Distillation, deasphalting, and supercritical extraction Thermal-cracking processes offer attractive methods of conversion of heavy oil and bitumen because they enable low operating pressure, while involving high operating temperature, without requiring expensive catalysts Currently, the widest operated heavy oil and bitumen upgrading or conversion processes are visbreaking and delayed coking And, these are still attractive processes for refineries from an economic point of view
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FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN
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The fluid catalytic cracking process using vacuum gas oil feedstock was introduced into refineries in the 1930s In recent years, because of a trend for low-boiling products, most refineries perform the operation by partially blending residues into vacuum gas oil However, conventional fluid catalytic cracking processes have limits in when applied to processing heavy oils and bitumen, so residue fluid catalytic cracking processes have lately been employed one after another Because the residue fluid catalytic cracking process enables efficient gasoline production directly from residues, it will play the most important role as a residue cracking process, along with the residue hydroconversion process Another role of the residuum fluid catalytic cracking process is to generate high-quality gasoline blending stock and petrochemical feedstock Olefins (propene, butenes, and pentenes) serve as feed for alkylation processes, for polymer gasoline, as well as for additives for reformulated gasoline Residuum hydrotreating processes have two definite roles: (a) desulfurization to supply low-sulfur fuel oils and (b) pretreatment of feed residua for residuum fluid catalytic cracking processes The main goal is to remove sulfur, metal, and asphaltene contents from residua and other heavy feedstocks to a desired level The major goal of residuum hydroconversion is cracking of heavy oil (and to some extent bitumen) with desulfurization, metal removal, denitrogenation, and asphaltene conversion Residuum hydroconversion process offers production of kerosene and gas oil, and production of feedstocks for hydrocracking, fluid catalytic cracking, and petrochemical applications Finally, in terms of upgrading tar sand bitumen, solvent deasphalting processes have not realized their maximum potential With ongoing improvements in energy efficiency, such processes would display its effects in a combination with other processes Solvent deasphalting allows removal of sulfur and nitrogen compounds as well as metallic constituents by balancing yield with the desired feedstock properties Upgrading residua that are similar in character to tar sand bitumen began with the introduction of desulfurization processes that were designed to reduce the sulfur content of residua as well as some heavy crude oils and products therefrom In the early days, the goal was desulfurization but, in later years, the processes were adapted to a 10 to 30 percent partial conversion operation, as intended to achieve desulfurization and obtain low-boiling fractions simultaneously, by increasing severity in operating conditions Refinery evolution has seen the introduction of a variety of heavy feedstock residuum cracking processes based on thermal cracking, catalytic cracking, and hydroconversion Those processes are different from one another in cracking method, cracked product patterns, and product properties, and will be employed in refineries according to their respective features In general terms, the quality of tar sand bitumen is low compared to that of conventional crude oil and heavy oil Upgrading and refining bitumen requires a different approach to that used for upgrading heavy oil In addition, the distance that the bitumen must be shipped to the refinery and in what form as well as product quality must all be taken into account when designing a bitumen refinery The low proportion of volatile constituents in bitumen [ie, those constituents boiling below 200 C (392 F)] initially precluded distillation as a refining step, are recognized by thermal means and are necessary to produce liquid fuel streams A number of factors have influenced the development of facilities that are capable of converting bitumen to a synthetic crude oil A visbreaking product would be a hydrocarbon liquid that was still high in sulfur and nitrogen with some degree of unsaturation This latter property enhances gum formation with the accompanying risk of pipeline fouling and similar disposition problems in storage facilities and fuel oil burners A high sulfur content in finished products is environmentally unacceptable In addition, high levels of nitrogen cause problems in the downstream processes, such as in catalytic cracking where nitrogen levels in excess of 3000 ppm will cause rapid catalyst deactivation; metals (nickel and vanadium) cause similar problems However, high-boiling constituents [ie, those boiling in the range 200 400 C, (392 752 F)] can be isolated by distillation but, in general terms, more than 40 percent by weight
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