FOUR in C#.NET

Scanner Code 128C in C#.NET FOUR

CHAPTER FOUR
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of bitumen with a lease operating life of 22 years Expended production of the in situ projects at Foster Creek, MacKay River, and Christina Lake will provide a further 200,000 bbl/day of bitumen at the time of completion The Scotford Upgrader is located next to Shell Canada s Scotford Refinery near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta where bitumen from the Muskeg River Mine is upgraded into synthetic crude oil A significant portion of the output is sold to the Scotford Refinery for further processing In addition to the coking options, the LC-Fining ebullated-bed hydroconversion process is used at both the Syncrude Mildred Lake upgrader and the Shell Scotford Upgrader The H-Oil ebullated-bed hydroconversion process is used at the Husky Lloydminster Upgrader 462 Secondary Upgrading Catalytic hydrotreating is used for secondary upgrading to remove impurities and enhance the quality of the final synthetic crude oil product In a typical catalytic hydrotreating unit, the feedstock is mixed with hydrogen, preheated in a fired heater, and then charged under high pressure to a fixed-bed catalytic reactor Hydrotreating converts sulfur and nitrogen compounds present in the feedstock to hydrogen sulfide and ammonia Sour gases from the hydrotreater(s) are treated for use as plant fuel Hydrocracking may also be employed at this stage to improve product yield and quality Thus the primary liquid product (synthetic crude oil) is hydrotreated (secondary upgrading) to remove sulfur and nitrogen (as hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, respectively) and to hydrogenate the unsaturated sites exposed by the conversion process It may be necessary to employ separate hydrotreaters for light distillates and mediumto-heavy fractions; for example, the heavier fractions require higher hydrogen partial pressures and higher operating temperatures to achieve the desired degree of sulfur and nitrogen removal Commercial applications have therefore been based on the separate treatment of two or three distillate fractions at the appropriate severity to achieve the required product quality and process efficiency Hydrotreating is generally carried out in down-flow reactors containing a fixed bed of cobalt-molybdate catalysts The reactor effluents are stripped of the produced hydrogen sulfide and ammonia Any light ends are sent to the fuel gas system and the liquid products are recombined to form synthetic crude oil Finishing and stabilisation (hydrodesulfurization and saturation) of the liquid products is achieved by hydrotreating the liquid streams, as two or three separate streams (Speight, 1999 and references cited therein) This is necessary because of the variation in conditions and catalysts necessary for treatment of a naphtha fraction relative to the conditions necessary for treatment of gas oil It is more efficient to treat the liquid product streams separately and then to blend the finished liquids to a synthetic crude oil In order to take advantage of optimum operating conditions for various distillate fractions, the Suncor coker distillate is treated as three separate fractions: naphtha, kerosene, and gas oil In the operation used by Syncrude, the bitumen products are separated into two distinct fractions: naphtha and mixed gas oils Each plant combines the hydrotreated fractions to form synthetic crude oil that is then shipped by pipeline to a refinery 463 Other Processes Other processes which have also received some attention for bitumen upgrading include partial upgrading (a form of thermal deasphalting), flexicoking, the Eureka process, and various hydrocracking processes
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FUELS FROM TAR SAND BITUMEN
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A partial coking or thermal deasphalting process provides a minimal upgrading of bitumen In partial coking, the hot water process froth is distilled at atmospheric pressure and minerals and water are removed A dehydrated mineral-free bitumen product is obtained that contains most of the asphaltenes and coke precursors The process has been carried out in batch equipment in laboratory tests over periods ranging from 30 minutes to 4 hours Thermal cracking begins as the liquid temperature passes 340 C (644 F) The distillation is continued into the range 370 to 450 C (698 842 F) With slow heating [10 C (50 F) temperature rise per hour] the coke production rate is approximately 1 percent weight of feed per hour As the coke forms about the entrained mineral particles, 1 to 4 percent weight of coke up to 50 percent v/v of the feed is recovered as distillate After this treatment the residue may be filtered to yield an essentially ash-free production suitable for applications such as metallurgic coke or production of bituminous paints, for which the original mineral content would have disqualified it In the flexicoking process, a gasifier vessel is added to the system in order to gasify excess coke with a gas-air mixture to a low heating-value gas that can be desulfurized and used as a plant fuel The Eureka process is a variant of delayed coking and uses steam stripping to enhance yield and produce a heavy pitch rather than coke byproduct
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464 Hydrogen Production Current synthetic crude oil production operations meet the hydrogen requirements using steam-methane reforming with natural gas used for both feedstock and fuel However, the increasing price of natural gas is increasing production costs and partial oxidation (gasification) of a bitumen stream or coal could well be the mode of hydrogen generation for future projects
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