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In the current context, coal mining depends on the following criteria: (a) seam thickness, (b) the overburden thickness, (c) the ease of removal of the overburden (surface mining), (d) the ease with which a shaft can be sunk to reach the coal seam (underground mining), (e) the amount of coal extracted relative to the amount that cannot be removed, and (f) the market demand for the coal There are two predominant types of mining methods that are employed for coal recovery The first group consists of surface mining methods, in which the strata (overburden) overlying the coal seam are first removed after which the coal is extracted from the exposed seam (Fig 58) Underground mining currently accounts for recovery of approximately 60 percent of the world recovery of coal
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FIGURE 58 Coal mining (Reproduced with permission Copyright 2000 Kentucky Geological Survey, University of Kentucky)
531 Surface Mining Surface mining is the application of coal-removal methods to reserves that are too shallow to be developed by other mining methods The characteristic that distinguishes open-pit mining is the thickness of the coal seam insofar as it is virtually impossible to backfill the immediate mined out area with the original overburden when extremely thick seams of coal are involved Thus, the coal is removed either by taking the entire seam down to the seam basement (ie, floor of the mine) or by benching (the staged mining of the coal seam) Frequent use is made of a drift mine in which a horizontal seam of coal outcrops to the surface in the side of a hill or mountain, and the opening into the mine can be made directly into the coal seam This type of mine is generally the easiest and most economic to open because excavation through rock is not necessary Another surface mine is a slope mine in which an inclined opening is used to trap the coal seam (or seams) A slope mine may follow the coal seam if the seam is inclined and outcrops, or the slope may be driven through rock strata overlying the coal to reach a seam that is below drainage Coal transportation from a slope mine can be by conveyor or by track haulage (using a trolley locomotive if the grade is not severe) or by pulling mine cars up the slope using an electric hoist and steel rope if the grade is steep The most common practice is to use a belt conveyor where grades do not exceed 18
On the other hand, contour mining prevails in mountainous and hilly terrain taking its name from the method in which the equipment follows the contours of the earth Auger mining is frequently employed in open-pit mines where the thickness of the overburden at the high-wall section of the mine is too great for further economic mining This, however, should not detract from the overall concept and utility of auger mining as it is also applicable to underground operations As the coal is discharged from the auger spiral, it is collected for transportation to the coal preparation plant or to the market Additional auger lengths are added as the cutting head of the auger penetrates further under the high wall into the coal Penetration continues until the cutting head drifts into the top or bottom, as determined by the cuttings returned, into a previous hole, or until the maximum torque or the auger is reached
532 Underground Mining The second method for the recovery of coal is underground (or deep) mining This is a method in which the coal is extracted from a seam by means of a shaft mine enters earth by a vertical opening from the surface and descends to the coal seam and there overlying strata are not removed In the mine, the coal is extracted from the seam by conventional mining, or by continuous mining, or by longwall mining, or by shortwall mining, or by room and pillar mining Conventional mining (also called cyclic mining) involves a sequence of operations in the order (a) supporting the roof, (b) cutting, (c) drilling, (d) blasting, (e) coal removal, and (f ) loading After the roof above the seam has been made safe by timbering or by roof bolting, one or more slots (a few inches wide and extending for several feet into the coal) are cut along the length of the coal face by a large, mobile cutting machine The cut, or slot, provides a free face and facilitates the breaking up of the coal, which is usually blasted from the seam by explosives These explosives (permissible explosives) produce an almost flame-free explosion and markedly reduce the amount of noxious fumes relative to the more conventional explosives The coal may then be transported by rubber-tired electric vehicles (shuttle cars) or by chain (or belt) conveyor systems Continuous mining involved the use of a single machine (continuous miner) that breaks the coal mechanically and loads it for transport Roof support is then installed, ventilation is advanced, and the coal face is ready for the next cycle The method of secondary transportation is located immediately behind the continuous miner and requires installation of mobile belt conveyors The longwall mining system involves the use of a mechanical self-advancing roof in which large blocks of coal are completely extracted in a continuous operation Hydraulic or self-advancing jacks (chocks) support the roof at the immediate face as the coal is removed As the face advances, the strata are allowed to collapse behind the support units Coal recovery is near that attainable with the conventional or continuous systems as well as efficient mining under extremely deep cover or overburden or when the roof is weak The shortwall mining system is a combination of the continuous mining and longwall mining concepts and offers good recovery of the in-place coal with a marked decrease in the costs for roof support Room and pillar mining is a means of developing a coal face and, at the same time, retaining supports for the roof Thus, by means of this technique, rooms are developed from large tunnels driven into the solid coal with the intervening pillars of coal supporting the roof The percentage of coal recovered from a seam depends on the number and size of protective pillars of coal thought necessary to support the roof safely and of the percentage of pillar recovery
533 Mine Safety and Environment Effects Mining operations are hazardous and each year a number of coal miners lose their lives or are seriously injured through the occurrence of roof falls, rock bursts, fires, and explosions
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