FUELS FROM COAL in C#.NET

Reader Code 128B in C#.NET FUELS FROM COAL

FUELS FROM COAL
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Power & steam Naphtha Waxes Fischertropsch liquids
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Coal Gasification Synthesis gas H2
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Iron reduction Fuel/town gas Ammonia & urea
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Diesel/jet/gas fuels Methanol Synthetic natural gas Methyl acetate Acetic acid VAM PVA Ketene Diketene & derivatives Acetate esters Oxo chemicals Acetic anhydride Polyolefins Ethylene & propylene Dimethyl ether
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FIGURE 513
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Potential products from coal gasification
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Low Heat-Content (Low-Btu) Gas During the production of coal gas by oxidation with air, the oxygen is not separated from the air and, as a result, the gas product invariably has a low heat-content (150 300 Btu/ft3; 56 112 MJ/m3) Low heat-content gas is also the usual product of in situ gasification of coal (Sec 555) which is used essentially as a method for obtaining energy from coal without the necessity of mining the coal, especially if the coal cannot be mined or if mining is uneconomic Several important chemical reactions, and a host of side reactions, are involved in the manufacture of low heat-content gas under the high temperature conditions employed Low heat-content gas contains several components, four of which are always major components present at levels of at least several percent; a fifth component, methane, is marginally a major component The nitrogen content of low heat-content gas ranges from somewhat less than 33 percent v/v to slightly more than 50 percent v/v and cannot be removed by any reasonable means; the presence of nitrogen at these levels makes the product gas low heat-content by definition The nitrogen also strongly limits the applicability of the gas to chemical synthesis Two other noncombustible components [water (H2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2)] further lower the heating value of the gas; water can be removed by condensation and carbon dioxide by relatively straightforward chemical means The two major combustible components are hydrogen and carbon monoxide; the H2/CO ratio varies from approximately 2:3 to about 3:2 Methane may also make an appreciable contribution to the heat content of the gas Of the minor components hydrogen sulfide is the most significant and the amount produced is, in fact, proportional to the sulfur content of the feed coal Any hydrogen sulfide present must be removed by one, or more, of several procedures (Speight, 1993) Low heat-content gas is of interest to industry as a fuel gas or even, on occasion, as a raw material from which ammonia, methanol, and other compounds may be synthesized Medium Heat-Content (Medium-Btu) Gas Medium heat-content gas has a heating value in the range 300 to 550 Btu/ft3 (112 205 MJ/m3) and the composition is much like
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CHAPTER FIVE
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that of low heat-content gas, except that there is virtually no nitrogen The primary combustible gases in medium heat-content gas are hydrogen and carbon monoxide (Kasem, 1979) Medium heat-content gas is considerably more versatile than low heat-content gas; like low heat-content gas, medium heat-content gas may be used directly as a fuel to raise steam, or used through a combined power cycle to drive a gas turbine, with the hot exhaust gases employed to raise steam, but medium heat-content gas is especially amenable to synthesize methane (by methanation), higher hydrocarbons (by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis), methanol, and a variety of synthetic chemicals The reactions used to produce medium heat-content gas are the same as those employed for low heat-content gas synthesis, the major difference being the application of a nitrogen barrier (such as the use of pure oxygen) to keep diluent nitrogen out of the system In medium heat-content gas, the H2/CO ratio varies from 2:3 to 3:1 and the increased heating value correlates with higher methane and hydrogen contents as well as with lower carbon dioxide contents Furthermore, the very nature of the gasification process used to produce the medium heat-content gas has a marked effect upon the ease of subsequent processing For example, the carbon-dioxide-acceptor product is quite amenable to use for methane production because it has (a) the desired H2/CO ratio just exceeding 3:1, (b) an initially high methane content, and (c) relatively low water and carbon dioxide contents Other gases may require appreciable shift reaction and removal of large quantities of water and carbon dioxide prior to methanation High Heat-Content (High-Btu) Gas High heat-content gas is essentially pure methane and often referred to as synthetic natural gas or substitute natural gas (SNG) (Kasem, 1979; cf Speight, 1990) However, to qualify as substitute natural gas, a product must contain at least 95 percent methane; the energy content of synthetic natural gas is 980 to 1080 Btu/ft3 (365 402 MJ/m3) The commonly accepted approach to the synthesis of high heat-content gas is the catalytic reaction of hydrogen and carbon monoxide: 3H2 + CO CH4 + H2O To avoid catalyst poisoning, the feed gases for this reaction must be quite pure and, therefore, impurities in the product are rare The large quantities of water produced are removed by condensation and recirculated as very pure water through the gasification system The hydrogen is usually present in slight excess to ensure that the toxic carbon monoxide is reacted; this small quantity of hydrogen will lower the heat content to a small degree The carbon monoxide/hydrogen reaction is somewhat inefficient as a means of producing methane because the reaction liberates large quantities of heat In addition, the methanation catalyst is troublesome and prone to poisoning by sulfur compounds and the decomposition of metals can destroy the catalyst Thus, hydrogasification may be employed to minimize the need for methanation: [C]coal + 2H2 CH4 The product of hydrogasification is far from pure methane and additional methanation is required after hydrogen sulfide and other impurities are removed
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553 Physicochemical Aspects Coal varies widely in chemical composition The most important constituents are carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), with some sulfur and nitrogen, bound together in complex arrangements If coal is heated in an inert atmosphere, this intricate molecular
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