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124 U Step 4 Review the Knowledge You Need to Score High
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convenience sampling: The pollster obtains the sample any way he can, usually with the ease of obtaining the sample in mind For example, handing out questionnaires to every member of a given class at school would be a convenience sample The key issue here is that the surveyor makes the decision whom to include in the sample quota sampling: The pollster attempts to generate a representative sample by choosing sample members based on matching individual characteristics to known characteristics of the population This is similar to a stratified random sample, only the process for selecting the sample is nonrandom
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Sampling Bias
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Any sample may contain bias What we are trying to avoid is systematic bias, which is the tendency for our results to favor, systematically, one outcome over another This can occur through faulty sampling techniques or through faults in the actual measurement instrument
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Undercoverage
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One type of bias results from undercoverage This happens when some part of the population being sampled is somehow excluded This can happen when the sampling frame (the list from which the sample will be drawn) isn t the same as the target population It can also occur when part of the sample selected fails to respond for some reason example: A pollster conducts a telephone survey to gather opinions of the general population about welfare Persons on welfare too poor to be able to afford a telephone are certainly interested in this issue, but will be systematically excluded from the sample The resulting sample will be biased because of the exclusion of this group
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Voluntary response bias occurs with self-selected samples Persons who feel most strongly about an issue are most likely to respond Non-response bias, the possible biases of those who choose not to respond, is a related issue example: You decide to find out how your neighbors feel about the neighbor who seems to be running a car repair shop on his front lawn You place a questionnaire in every mailbox within sight of the offending home and ask the people to fill it out and return it to you About 1/2 of the neighbors return the survey, and 95% of those who do say that they find the situation intolerable We have no way of knowing the feelings of the 50% of those who didn t return the survey they may be perfectly happy with the bad neighbor Those who have the strongest opinions are those most likely to return your survey and they may not represent the opinions of all Most likely they do not example: In response to a question once posed in Ann Landers s advice column, some 70% of respondents (almost 10,000 readers) wrote that they would choose not to have children if they had the choice to do it over again This is most likely representative only of those parents who were having a really bad day with their children when they decided to respond to the question In fact, a properly designed opinion poll a few months later found that more than 90% of parents said they would have children if they had the chance to do it all over again
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Design of a Study: Sampling, Surveys, and Experiments 125
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Wording Bias
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Wording bias occurs when the wording of the question itself influences the response in a systematic way A number of studies have demonstrated that welfare gathers more support from a random sample of the public when it is described as helping people until they can better help themselves that when it is described as allowing people to stay on the dole example: Compare the probable responses to the following ways of phrasing a question (i) (ii) Do you support a woman s right to make medical decisions concerning her own body Do you support a woman s right to kill an unborn child
It s likely that (i) is designed to show that people are in favor of a woman s right to choose an abortion and that (ii) is designed to show that people are opposed to that right The authors of both questions would probably argue that both responses reflect society s attitudes toward abortion example: Two different Gallup Polls were conducted in Dec 2003 Both involved people s opinion about the US space program Here is one part of each poll Poll A: Would you favor or oppose a new US space program that would send astronauts to the moon Favor 53%; oppose 45% Poll B: Would you favor or oppose US government spending billions of dollars to send astronauts to the moon Favor 31%; oppose 67% (source: http://wwwstatucdavisedu/~jie/stat13winter2007/lec18pdf )
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