Programming for performance in SharePoint in Visual C#.NET

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Programming for performance in SharePoint
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Make smarter queries to SharePoint Many Web Parts you ll build will query SharePoint for information from lists or sites. There are several ways to query SharePoint for information. The query will have different performance implications, depending on how it s done and which method you use. Creating the correct query is especially important when working with large lists. Next, I ll show you how to query a standard Tasks list for all items that have the status set to Completed.
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The easiest (but worst performing) way to query a SharePoint list is to iterate over the objects and check the fields for the data via the SharePoint object model. The following code snippet shows how to iterate over the Tasks list items using a foreach statement:
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SPWeb web = SPContext.Current.Web; SPList tasks = web.Lists["Tasks"]; foreach (SPListItem task in tasks.Items) { if (task["Status"].ToString() == "Completed") { Label1.Text += task.Title; } }
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The Tasks list is retrieved from the current SPWeb object before iterating over all items. To get the correct items, a string comparison is done on the Status field. For a very small list, this code works fine, but as the list grows, this method will perform poorly. First, when iterating over the items in the list, the complete list item objects are retrieved from the database and read into memory. Second, the fields aren t strongly typed, which means you must programmatically convert the fields into the correct type. Doing this will also make your code more error prone.
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SharePoint 2010 introduces a tool called SPMetal that can generate strongly typed objects of your lists and list items. The code generated by this tool allows you to use LINQ to query the SharePoint objects. You can more easily write queries and you don t have to be concerned with converting types.
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NOTE SPMetal is a tool that generates entity classes to provide an objectoriented way to work with the objects within a SharePoint site. The tool is available in SharePoint Foundation and is located in {SharePoint Root}\BIN (it s called SPMetal.exe).
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The following code snippet shows how the previous object model listing is uses the entity classes generated by SPMetal and LINQ queries:
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using (SPMetalDataContext context = new SPMetalDataContext( SPContext.Current.Web.Url)) { var tasks = from task in context.GetList<TasksTask>("Tasks") where task.TaskStatus == TaskStatus.Completed select task.Title;
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foreach (var title in tasks) { Label1.Text += title; } }
To use the entity classes, you need a data context, which you create using the URL to current web site. A LINQ query is performed using the Tasks list, where all completed tasks are sorted out. Finally, all titles of these tasks are returned. Using the entity classes (created by SPMetal) and LINQ, you can perform the query using strongly typed properties. This approach reduces the number of errors in the code. Behind the scenes, the LINQ query is converted to a CAML (Collaboration Application Markup Language) query that queries the database and returns only the items that match the query. This reduces the number of items in memory for this Web Part, and the query is faster than manually iterating the items. If the list contains a large number of items, this method is far better than the previous. To further improve performance, consider using the LINQ Take(n) method to return only the number of items that you really need. The downside to using LINQ to SharePoint is that it requires that the LINQ runtime be loaded, which makes the first call slower compared to the succeeding ones. It also requires that more objects and classes be loaded into memory. If you re working with anonymous users, such as public-facing websites, you should know that LINQ to SharePoint doesn t currently support anonymous users in the RTM version. Cumulative updates for SharePoint have resolved this and it will work in upcoming service packs.
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