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The Wireless Future
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Partnership Program (3GPP) or industry associations such as WAP or Mobile Electronic Transactions (MeT) As new security architectures are ratified, it is imperative that these new specifications get into new products as quickly as possible
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But Wait, There s More Introducing Fourth-Generation (4G) Networks
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To further prove the continuing evolution of wireless technologies, people are already discussing fourth-generation (4G) networks before 3G networks have even achieved significant global deployments The discussion about 4G does not foretell 3G s untimely demise; rather, it indicates that the wireless industry is continuing to drive technology evolution to support even greater data throughputs and network capacity than those offered by 3G However, 4G is closely linked to 3G In fact, interest in 4G increased immediately following the 3G radio spectrum auctions in Europe as carriers began considering alternative and potentially cheaper methods for high-speed wireless access In Japan, wireless pioneer NTT DoCoMo announced in March 2001 that they plan to offer 4G services by 2006, several years ahead of previously announced plans The main driver behind the interest in 4G networks is faster data throughput In fact, 4G networks are not necessarily entirely new technology, but a combination of existing 2G/25G/3G technologies to attain faster data throughput In a 4G environment, Bluetooth, 80211, and 2G/25G technologies could all coexist and provide the necessary capabilities for high-speed wireless Internet access This leads to the creation of so-called hotspots, confined areas in high-profile locations such as airports or hotel lobbies in which a wireless LAN network is installed and users connect to that LAN with a PC or handset and achieve high-speed access See Figure 11-2 for more details When users are removed from these hotspots, they essentially function as if they were on a 2G or 25G network The 4G approach has several significant advantages, notably to carriers:
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Lower cost The 4G approach requires a new wireless infrastructure, but only in those areas supporting hotspots Thus, network operators have to deploy high-speed switching stations in a fraction of the overall network footprint
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Figure 11-2
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Part 3 Wireless Deployment Strategies
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PSTN
Wireless Operator Network 2G/25G
Bluetooth or Infrared
Wireless LAN
Wired Network
Internet
Wireless Handset
Hot Spot Airport Terminal Hotel Lobby 80211 Interface
Laptop PC Wireless Modem Card
Utilizes existing technologies Although 4G still requires some infrastructure and software components, it can function with today s wireless equipment and handsets This makes 4G considerably cheaper to deploy and also means that network operators may actually be able to deploy 4G sooner Simpler financial model The hotspot concept appeals to network operators because it will generate a significant return on investment (ROI) Enabling an entire network footprint with 3G services is not likely to be economically viable in the short term because some areas of the network will not generate enough usage to justify the cost Hotspots are attractive because they can be located in the areas most likely to attract revenue-generating customers, particularly business users
The renewed interest in 4G is reassuring because it indicates that the wireless industry is seeking to become more proactive in technology deployments, rather than having to react suddenly to new changes If NTT DoCoMo s experiences are any guide for the rest of the world, overcapacity is a serious consideration for any wireless networks In 2001,
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The Wireless Future
DoCoMo actually temporarily suspended all marketing, advertising, and promotional activities for the service because so many new users were signing up for service that the network s bandwidth was maximized It is worth noting that this happened on a 2G network with limited content As content increases and improves, and as the wireless form factor improves in functionality, it is not inconceivable to envision similar overcapacity issues occurring on 25G and 3G networks within the next five years Some preliminary 4G network technologies have already been demonstrated All of these demonstrations have focused on methods to increase throughput to the wireless device, particularly to enable capabilities like streaming audio and video A common term used in both 3G and 4G architectures is downlink performance This refers to the throughput to the device Because the wireless devices are not expected to send large amounts of data to the network, uplink performance is not as important Thus, the focus has been to design asymmetric networks that offer considerably faster throughput from network to device rather than vice versa This is parallel to the concept behind Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) technology in the wired world in which download speed is much faster than upload speed The reality of 4G is that it has significant challenges Given the asymmetric nature of the data flow, the wireless device s functionality must be increased significantly With DSL, the standard PC is easily capable of handling the asymmetric requirements Wireless devices do not have the same luxuries as PCs, such as high-powered processors, significant memory and storage, and ample power supply For these reasons, some of the biggest hurdles for 4G will revolve on the capability to increase the wireless device functionality in areas such as battery life and processing power without significantly increasing cost 4G has also renewed interest in a concept called software-defined radio (SDR) SDR traces its roots to the ongoing radio frequency spectrum issues and was conceived as a method to enable network operators to reprogram base stations2 This functionality is important for better spectrum efficiency Although interest initially concentrated on programmable base stations, the continuing advancements in silicon semiconductor technology have also opened the possibility of reprogrammable wireless devices A reprogrammable wireless device could enable a
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