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To avoid cloning problems and other security weaknesses, wireless network operators and suppliers have adopted numerous security mechanisms The most basic mechanism is encryption, the process of transforming plain-text voice or data into a format that cannot be understood if intercepted Encryption operates on a simple premise A encryption key is applied to a message that creates an encrypted message The receiving party applies the same encryption key to decrypt and read the message in plain text Figure 5-9 illustrates the basic cryptographic principle The relative strength of any encryption system is the size of the encryption key The larger the key, the stronger the system because bigger keys mean that there are theoretically more possible keys to choose from, thereby making the successful discovery of a given key very time consuming
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Sarah Robinson, Cell Phone Flaw Opens Security Hole, Interactive Week, September 17, 2000 (http://zdnetcomcom/2100-11-502889html legacy zdnn)
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Figure 5-9 Basic principle of encryption
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For instance, if an encryption key were simply a number between 0 and 99, a hacker has only 100 values to search to determine the proper key A key could be recovered quite quickly by simply applying the 100 values in succession and examining the output As computers have gotten faster, the capability to search all theoretical possibilities for a given key size (otherwise known as a brute force attempt) has improved significantly For example, in the early 1980s, 56-bit keys were the standard, meaning that there were 256 possible key combinations But by the late 1990s, security experts had proven that 56-bit keys could be successfully brute forced These efforts required massive amounts of parallel computing power (tens of thousands of ordinary PCs simultaneously trying key combinations), but were still able to compromise a 56-bit Data Encryption Standard (DES) key in less than a day Table 5-3 provides some rough calculations on the relative effort required to complete a brute force attack against given key sizes On the wireless side, longer key lengths become problematic because of the limited hardware and processing power on the handsets For this reason, initial digital networks like GSM have relied on 64-bit keys, even though those have been proven susceptible to recent brute force attacks Encryption systems fall into two simple categories: symmetric key systems and asymmetric key systems Symmetric systems (also known as secret key, single key, or one-key systems) function on a simple premise: the encryption key and the decryption key are the same value, or symmetric In order to secure encrypted communications, the sender and receiver must possess the same key The DES algorithm is a well-known example of a symmetric key algorithm Within the symmetric systems, the encryption algorithms are either block algorithms or stream algorithms As the name implies, block algorithms transform blocks of data into an encrypted form Most block
Table 5-3
Part 2 Wireless Technologies and Applications
Key Length Time for years exhaustive search of all keys
32 bits
40 bits
56 bits 23 years
64 bits
128 bits
Key Size and Brute Force4
9 hours 12 days
583 years 108 1038
Statistics based on current capabilities of 109 (1 billion) calculations per second and are only a benchmark Additional hardware and expense can further reduce the calculations required
algorithms process blocks of at least 64 bits in size Stream algorithms transform individual bits of data into an encrypted form In asymmetric systems, different or asymmetric keys are used for encryption and decryption Asymmetric systems are also known as public/ private key systems In public key systems, the encryption key can be made public, which offers a significant benefit over symmetric systems because it simplifies the key distribution process The RSA algorithm is a well-known example of an asymmetric algorithm The term public in public key cryptography is symbolic in a significant manner The relative strength of any security system rests on the ability of unaffiliated parties to test and examine the systems for any theoretical weaknesses Keeping cryptographic algorithms secret from public review only invites suspicion and can lead to weaker cryptographic systems being implemented This point is relevant in the wireless world as numerous security algorithms have not been subject to global peer review, which opens the door for weaknesses to be exposed on an unprepared public
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