Introduction to Cellular Networks in C#.NET

Recognizer UPC A in C#.NET Introduction to Cellular Networks

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Introduction to Cellular Networks
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The initial security architecture was developed in the early 1990s At the time, 64-bit key sizes seemed reasonable, given the current state of personal computing power Unfortunately, rapid improvements in computing power and analysis now make 64-bit keys increasingly more susceptible to brute force attacks The first important step in the GSM architecture is authentication: definitively proving that a user and handset are authorized to use the GSM network Beacuse the SIM card and mobile network possess the same encryption algorithm and symmetric key, they can establish a trusted connection In the secure SIM personalization facility, these items are loaded onto the SIM The SIM cards for the mobile handsets are personalized by the operator with the necessary cryptographic protocols, keys, and algorithms The SIM cards are then distributed to retail outlets for distribution to new subscribers Two kinds of SIM cards are available: Phase 1 and Phase 2 Phase 1 cards only have 3K of memory for storing alphanumeric numbers Phase 2 cards have 8K of memory and can store alphanumeric numbers and SMS messages Upon initial purchase, the SIM card contains the following data:
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This is the same as an electronic serial number
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Individual Subscriber s Authentication Key (Ki) 128 bits in length A3 and A8 algorithms User PIN code Pin Unlocking Key (PUK) Only needed if user forgets PIN
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Depending on the network operator s service plan, individual GSM subscribers may also store individual phone numbers and SMS messages on the SIM card This provides portability in the event that the user changes handsets The MSCs possess copies of A3, A5, and A8 algorithms; these are usually stored on a protected hardware device
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What Is SS7
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A point that is often overlooked in discussions of cellular networks is the physical connection these networks must maintain with the traditional Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) People often think of wireless risks as being confined to the handsets and base stations, but the wired network is still a vital component because many wireless calls have to connect to the wired network Because the cellular authentication
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Part 2 Wireless Technologies and Applications
process interfaces with the PSTN, a secure interface between wireless and wired networks is essential This is why the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) created the Common Channel Signaling System No 7 or SS7 standard The SS7 standard defines the procedures and protocol through which networks exchange information SS7 is basically a digital signaling protocol and network Information between a wireless network (like authentication information) and the PSTN is handled as an SS7 message The typical throughput is around 64 Kbps, but most importantly, SS7 communication is handled on dedicated out-of-band channels (not on voice channels)
GSM Authentication
When a called is placed from a mobile phone, the GSM network s VLR authenticates the individual subscriber s phone The VLR immediately communicates with the HLR, which in turn retrieves the subscriber s information from the AuC This information is forwarded to the VLR and the following process commences: 1 The base station generates a 128-bit random value or challenge (called RAND) and transmits it to the phone 2 The phone encrypts a RAND with A3 and the Ki This calculation results in a 32-bit signed response (called an SRES) 3 Simultaneously, the VLR calculates the SRES This is easy because the VLR possesses the Ki, a RAND, and a copy of A3 4 The phone transmits the SRES to a base station and it is forwarded to a VLR 5 The VLR checks the SRES value from the phone against the SRES calculated by the VLR 6 If the SRES values match, the authentication is successful and the subscriber may utilize the network (see Figure 5-11) 7 If the SRES values do not match, the connection is terminated and the failure is reported to the handset This simple process offers two significant benefits:
The Ki stays local Because the authentication key is the most essential authentication component, protecting that key is very important In this model, the Ki is never transmitted over the air and thus is not susceptible to interception The Ki is only present in the
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