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ANSI-41 Interoperation with other Networks
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ANSI-41 Network Implementations
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ping, and transaction management Protocol conversion provides the translation of messages and parameters from one protocol to the other Database mapping provides the translation and management of information elements that allow each of the application protocols to provide user service (eg, subscriber identification, location, and status information) Transaction management enables the completion of queries between the two networks (eg, reoriginating and maintaining queries and responses from one network to the other)
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Interworking Solutions
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The basic model of a solution is a logical functional entity that performs the appropriate protocol conversion, database mapping, and transaction management to support the mobility management, call origination, and call delivery functions This interworking function (IWF) provides the logical interface between GSM and ANSI-41 networks (see Figure 1719) Many implementations can be derived from this logical reference model Note that this model does not necessarily imply the placement of the IWF outside both networks (see Figure 1720) The IWF can support interworking between any network elements where there is desired interworking functionality All physical implementations of the IWF need to provide the three basic functions of protocol conversion, database mapping, and transaction management
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Figure 1719 A logical interworking function
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IWF ANSI-41 network element GSM network element
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Interworking between GSM and ANSI-41 networks to provide the identified mobility management, call origination, and call delivery functions involves the serving MSC/VLR and the HLR (see Figure 1721) Signaling is required between the HLR in one network and the MSC/VLR of the other to support all the functions identified for interworking Trunk connections are required between the MSC/VLR and the PSTN to support call origination, call delivery, and the call features and control
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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ANSI-41 Interoperation with other Networks
17:
ANSI-41 Interoperation with Other Networks
Figure 1720 The IWF can reside in either the GSM or ANSI-41 networks or between the networks
ANSI-41 network
GSM network
ANSI-41 network
GSM network
ANSI-41 network
GSM network
The most basic physical implementation of the IWF is known as the dual-mode HLR This network node is essentially a complete ANSI-41 based HLR conjoined with a complete GSM HLR Each side of the HLR adequately serves that side of the network Internally, the protocol conversion, database mapping, and transaction management functions can be performed to support roaming between the two networks However, the dual-mode HLR solution may be considered overqualified as an IWF It is essentially the implementation of a GSM HLR inside an ANSI-41 HLR or vice versa Although conceptually this seems to be a solution that intrudes the least on both networks, it is a very expensive implementation and can take many years to design, develop, test, and deploy (see Figure 1722) It also requires the replacement of existing HLRs in each network with this new dual-mode design An alternative and in some cases preferable solution is to implement protocol conversion, database mapping, and transaction management for all of the functions supported between the networks as a single separate network element, as shown in Figure 1721 It provides a basic IWF solution that requires no changes to existing ANSI-41 or GSM net-
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ANSI-41 Interoperation with other Networks
Figure 1721 The IWF involves signaling connections to the serving MSC/VLR and the HLR of both networks to interwork the intersystem operations Trunk connections to the PSTN are required for call origination and call delivery
Part 3:
ANSI-41 Network Implementations
HLR ANSI-41 network MSC/ VLR IWF
HLR GSM network MSC/ VLR
PSTN
trunks signaling links
GSM subscriber (dual-mode MS)
ANSI-41 subscriber (dual-mode MS)
works and can reside external or internal to either of the networks The IWF, in this case, appears as the HLR to the network serving the roaming subscriber, and it also appears as the serving VLR to the subscriber s home network Intersystem operations can then be routed to and translated by the IWF and sent to the real elements in the other network Generally, interworking between GSM and ANSI-41 networks does not provide the best of what wireless technology potentially has to offer There is limited functionality that can reasonably be performed between the two networks However, it is a method of supporting nationwide roaming to subscribers of GSM networks until those networks provide nationwide coverage themselves
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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