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Wireless Telecommunications Network Reference Models
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Introduction to Wireless Telecommunications
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ANSI-41 is designed to support a variety of radio-system standards separate from, but related to, the network ANSI-41 supports intersystem handoff functions affected by the radio systems
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Original incarnations of mobile switching and radio systems were implemented and deployed as bundled systems obtained from a single equipment vendor Therefore, the A interface evolved as proprietary and there was no need to standardize it The Um interface represents the radio, or air, interface between the mobile telephone and the radio base station This interface was originally specified and standardized by the TIA as EIA/TIA IS-3, and subsequently ANSI/TIA/EIA-553, as the AMPS protocol The latest version of this standard is ANSI/TIA/EIA691 Currently, there exist many standards for the radio interface such as Narrowband AMPS (NAMPS), TDMA, and CDMA Current standards do exist for the A interface, supporting the necessary operations to communicate from the MSC to the radio systems (ie, in ANSI/TIA/EIA-634 and TIA/EIA/IS-653) These standards support SS7, TCP/IP, and frame relay as transport protocols on this point-topoint communications link However, it is very rare to see one vendor s MSC on an ANSI-41 network and another vendor s radio systems subtending from that MSC These A interface standards are typically used to enable new technology trials and for attempts to demonstrate intertechnology networking, but are generally not used to support commercial deployment of multivendor equipment
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Second-generation ANSI-41 Functional Entities (IS-41-C)
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The second generation of the ANSI-41 network reference model is specified in IS-41 Revision C (IS-41-C) The following changes were made to the original reference model:
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The name of the CSS was changed to mobile station (MS) The Sm interface was removed Short message service (SMS) functional entities and interfaces were added
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
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Wireless Telecommunications Network Reference Models
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4:
Wireless Telecommunications Network Reference Models
Figure 46 The second generation ANSI-41 network reference model (from IS-41-C) The interfaces in bold represent the interfaces that are standardized in IS-41-C (Reproduced under written permission of the Telecommunications Industry Association)
F Ai
PSTN
MSC Di ISDN C B
AC BS EIR HLR ISDN MC MS MSC PSTN SME VLR
authentication center base station equipment identity register home location register integrated services digital network message center mobile station mobile switching center public switched telephone network short message entity visitor location register
Figure 46 shows the second-generation ANSI-41 network reference model The most prominent change from the previous model is the addition of functional entities supporting short message services (SMS) SMS is a set of services that supports the storage and transfer of short text messages (200 bytes or less) through the wireless network The SMS functional entities were added to the model after the stage 2 description of SMS justified their presence The name change from CSS to MS implies no change of functionality The need to show a distinction between this functional entity and other similar and analogous entities specified in other network standards was no longer an important consideration The change was implemented to make the terminology of the mobile telephone more consistent with common industry usage
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (wwwdigitalengineeringlibrarycom) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies All rights reserved Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website
Wireless Telecommunications Network Reference Models
Part 1:
Message Center
Introduction to Wireless Telecommunications
The message center (MC) is a functional entity that stores and forwards short messages for SMS The store-and-forward function provides a method of forwarding short messages to their destination recipient or storing those messages if the recipient is unavailable to receive them The store-and-forward function can be distinguished from the real-time delivery requirements of voice calls Short messages can be stored in a database until it is convenient for them to be sent to their specified destinations The MC can store messages that are either sent from a mobile station (ie, mobile-originated messages) or destined for a mobile station (ie, mobile-terminated messages) Besides storing and delivering short messages, the MC also performs signaling functions to support the other delivery functions, such as MS location and status queries and mapping of destination addresses Short messages can be sent to the MC from any functional entity that includes the function to support SMS message originations Conversely, short messages can be received by any functional entity that includes the function to support SMS message terminations These functional entities are known as short message entities (SMEs) Short Message Entity The SME is a functional entity that can originate short messages, terminate short messages, or do both Basically, SME is a generic term for any entity that can send or receive short messages via the ANSI-41 SMS An SME may be associated with an ANSI-41 functional entity (eg, an HLR, MC, or MSC) or associated with an entity external to ANSI-41 A mobile station also requires SME functionality for it to support the transmission of mobile-originated short messages and the reception of mobile-terminated short messages
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