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Basic Intersystem Handoff Functions
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ANSI-41 Explained
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Where Are Intersystem Handoff Functions Specified in ANSI-41
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The initial version of IS-41, IS-41-0, was primarily an intersystem handoff standard: of the twelve intersystem operations defined in this early standard, ten were concerned with intersystem handoff and maintenance of the trunks used for intersystem handoff While automatic roaming now accounts for the majority of ANSI-41 Revision D (ANSI-41D) operations (see Figure 92), intersystem handoff remains an important part of the ANSI-41 standard
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Figure 92 Initially, most IS-41 operations supported intersystem handoff A more balanced mix of handoff and automatic roaming operations existed in IS-41-A and IS-41-B However, automatic roaming operations account for well over half the operations in IS-41-C and ANSI-41-D
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ANSI-41-D (& IS-41-C)
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IS-41-B
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IS-41-0
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Number of operations Automatic Roaming Intersystem Handoff
Intersystem handoff functions are specified in three parts of ANSI-41: 1 ANSI-415 provides the required formats the bit-by-bit encoding of all the ANSI-41 operation components, including those used for
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Basic Intersystem Handoff Functions
9:
Basic Intersystem Handoff Functions
intersystem handoff ANSI-415 defines both the messages (eg, FacilitiesDirective Invoke) and the message parameters (eg, InterMSCCircuitID, TargetCellID) 2 ANSI-416 provides algorithmic descriptions of the procedures associated with sending and receiving most ANSI-41 messages, including those used for intersystem handoff As we pointed out in 8, ANSI-41 does not define a service interface between the MAP application processes and the MAP application service element (ASE); therefore, the procedures in ANSI-416 encompass both application process descriptions and ASE procedural descriptions Furthermore, the procedures leave considerable room for implementation-dependent customization; there are numerous references in ANSI-416 to local procedures and internal algorithms 3 ANSI-412 steps back from the protocol details contained in parts 5 and 6 and attempts to explain, by using information flow diagrams and step-by-step descriptions, how the operations are used individually and together to accomplish application process tasks Although ANSI-412 is a good place to begin to tackle ANSI-41 intersystem handoff, ANSI-415 and ANSI-416 contain the definitive requirements against which an ANSI-41 implementation is evaluated3
Issues Associated with Intersystem Handoff
The technical challenge of reliably executing a call handoff is significant The intersystem issues include the following: 1 Coordinating cell identification between neighboring MSCs To locate an MS for signal quality measurement and other handoff purposes, neighboring MSCs must agree on a cell identification scheme (see Figure 93) 2 Coordinating inter-MSC facility identification between neighboring MSCs ANSI-41 handoff requires dedicated inter-MSC trunks that
If inconsistencies are detected between parts, ANSI-415 and ANSI-416 take precedence over ANSI-412 Conflicting requirements between ANSI-415 and ANSI-416 are a more serious problem In either case, the errors should be brought to the attention of the TIA TR452 subcommittee
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Basic Intersystem Handoff Functions
Part 2:
ANSI-41 Explained
must be uniquely identifiable by the MSCs at both ends of the connection (see Figure 93) 3 Supporting MS characteristics after handoff For example, the AMPS standard allows some variability in MS characteristics (eg, the MS power class can be 06, 16, or 4 W) The MSCs involved in the handoff must ensure that these characteristics can be supported after the call handoff occurs 4 Limiting the length of the handoff chain As a call is handed off from the first serving MSC (the anchor MSC) to another serving MSC and so on, a handoff chain develops the sequence of MSCs, from the anchor to the current serving MSC actively involved in the call at a given time The length of the handoff chain is controlled in two different ways: by counting the number of inter-MSC facilities involved in the call and limiting that number to a value set by the individual cellular service provider and by providing a handoff-back operation, which prevents shoelace connections from MSC-A to MSC-B and back to MSC-A
Figure 93 MSC-A, MSC-B, and MSC-C must have a common understanding of cell identities (X, Y, and Z) to manage the location information that they exchange Pairs of MSCs (eg,
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