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Motivations, Developments, and Opportunities in Voice over Packet (VoP) Technologies
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11 Background to Voice over Packet (VoP) Technologies 12 Course of Investigation 13 Why MPLS Could Be the Ideal Solution for VoP 131 More on MPLS Features 132 Carriers Voice Networks End Notes References
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2 25 26 26 28 34 36
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Technologies for Packet-Based Voice Applications
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21 Overview of Speech-Encoding Methods 211 Waveform Coding 212 Vocoding (Analysis/Synthesis) in the Frequency Domain 22 ITU-T Recommendation G726: ADPCM 221 ADPCM Encoder 222 ADPCM Decoder 223 ADPCM Encoder Principles 224 ADPCM Decoder 23 ITU-T Recommendation G727: ADPCM for Packet Network Applications 231 Introduction 232 ADPCM Encoder Principles 233 ADPCM Decoder Principles 234 Example of Application 24 Technology and Standards for LBRV Methods 241 Overview 242 Key Coders 243 Standardization Process 25 Details of ITU-T Recommendation G7231 251 Differentiations
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38 46 50 61 62 63 63 68 68 69 71 76 77 77 79 86 89 92 92
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Copyright 2002 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Click Here for Terms of Use
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252 Technology 26 ITU-T Recommendation G728 261 LD-CELP Encoder 262 LD-CELP Decoder 27 ITU-T Recommendation G729 271 Introduction 272 Encoder 273 Decoder Appendix A: A Mathematical Synopsis A1 LPC Modeling A11 Physical Model A12 Mathematical Model A2 LPC Analysis A3 24-Kbps LPC Vocoder A4 48-Kbps CELP Coder A5 80-Kbps CS-ACELP Appendix B: A Mathematical Transform B1 Abstract B2 Introduction B3 Definitions B4 Theory B5 Cardinality Considerations B6 Conclusion End Notes
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Contents
93 95 97 98 98 98 101 101 102 102 102 103 105 108 110 112 112 112 113 114 114 122 124 125
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Quality of Service (QoS)
31 Basic Synopsis of MPLS 311 MPLS Forwarding/Label-Switching Mechanism 312 MPLS Label Distribution Mechanism 32 QoS Mechanisms 321 Per-Flow QoS Technology 322 Class-Based QoS Technology 323 Other QoS Technologies/Ideas 33 Details on QoS 331 IETF intserv Approach 332 Integration of RSVP and CR-LDP Signaling 333 Mapping Between intserv and CR-LDP Services 334 IETF diffserv 335 Traffic Management and QoS 336 Conclusion
139 140 142 145 147 151 151 152 152 153 161 163 172 174
Contents
Appendix A: A Summary of RSVP Features and Capabilities A1 Integrated Services Architecture (ISA) A2 RSVP Background A3 RSVP Nomenclature and Mechanisms A4 RSVP Protocol Operation A41 Path Messages A42 Resv Messages A43 Operational Procedures A5 Deployment Appendix B: diffserv Summary B1 Introduction B2 DS Architectural Model B21 DS Domain B22 DS Region B23 Traffic Classification and Conditioning B24 PHBs B25 Network Resource Allocation End Notes
175 175 177 178 182 183 184 185 186 186 186 192 192 194 194 199 200 201
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AM FL Y
Features of MPLS
206 206 210 210 212 212 213 216 217 218 230 231 231 231 232 237 241 244 245
41 Overview 411 Background 412 Traffic Engineering 413 Overview of VPN Requirements 42 Label Distribution 421 Introduction 422 Basic Approach 423 Basic Introduction to CR-LDP 424 Basic Introduction to Label Extensions to RSVP 425 Comparative Analysis 426 Label Distribution Summary 43 MPLS for VPNs 431 Scope 432 Goals 433 Technical Assessment Elements of an MPLS VPN Solution 434 VPN Peer and Route Discovery 435 VPN Multiplexing and CoS 436 Distributing Labels for Nested LSPs 437 MPLS VPN Security
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438 VPN Implementation Models 439 Standardization Efforts 4310 Summary of MPLS Capabilities End Notes
Contents
247 249 251 252
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Motivations, Drivers, Approaches, and Advantages of VoMPLS
51 Work to Date: MPLS Enhancements to VoIP 511 Benefits of Traffic Engineering 512 IP Header Compression 513 The Voice over IP over MPLS (VoIPoMPLS) Proposal 52 Voice Carriage in MPLS 53 Extended H323 Modeling for VoMPLS 54 Deployment Approaches 541 Enterprise 542 Carrier Environments 55 Outline of Work Underway That Is Needed for VoMPLS/VoIPoMPLS 551 Definition of VoIPoMPLS 552 Approach 553 Header Compression 554 Bearer Control for the VoIP and VoIPoMPLS Control Plane 555 VoIP/VoIPoMPLS Reference Model 556 Bearer Control for VoIP 56 VoIPoMPLS 561 Introduction 562 VoIPoMPLS Reference Model 563 VoIPoMPLS Applications 564 Requirements for MPLS Signaling 565 Requirements for Other Work Annex A: E-Model Analysis of the VoMPLS Reference Model A1 Introduction A2 Deployment of VoIPoMPLS Within the Core Network A21 Scenario 1: Effect of Multiple MPLS Domains A22 Scenario 2: Analysis of VoIPoMPLS and Typical DCME Practice A23 Scenario 3: Analysis of GSM, VoIPoMPLS, and Typical DCME Practice A24 VoIPoMPLS Core Network Summary A3 Extending VoIPoMPLS into the Access Network
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