MPLS VPN Security in C#

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437 MPLS VPN Security
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Customers expect VPN data to remain private, including the topology and addressing scheme for their network as well as the data carried on the VPN Historically, VPN implementations based on ATM or Frame Relay VCs have provided this security by virtue of the connection-oriented nature of the physical network However, the connectionless public IP network cannot provide the same protection, and IP VPNs have relied on cryptographic means to provide security and authentication MPLS brings to IP security benefits similar to layer 2 VCs This means that the customer equipment connected to the VPN does not need to run
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Outer Tunnels
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On-Demand (O) /Unsolicited (U)
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Table 4-4 Label Stack Distribution Methods
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Protocol Comments
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Routing protocola LDP
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Dynamically allocated per VPN and/or CoS inner labels can be carried in routing data Can be used to distribute egress-targeted labels for each service provider edge router Extensions currently being defined to enable VPN and CoS to be signaled for LSP tunnels TE MIB is also being extended to enable an explicit route hop to specify that a new LSP tunnel is stacked within an existing tunnel Static per VPN or CoS inner labels can be read from a directory Static LSPs can be configured at each LSR across the network by writing to the LSR MIB
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Nob,c Yesd
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Yes Noe
Inner Tunnels
U O/U
RSVP CR-LDP
Directory
Network management SNMP
RFC 2547 defines a BGP4-based implementation that distributes per VPN inner tunnel labels
Distance vector routing protocols could easily carry outer labels, but there would be a consequent increase in size of the routing data Link state protocols cannot easily be enhanced to carry labels However, use of distance vector protocols as the service provider IGP is rare
Does not allow resource reservation, which may be required if the VPN customer wants a minimum bandwidth guarantee
d VPN-specific addressing would not be transparent to the network core if distributed using LDP However, LDP could be used to distribute FEC-based labels within a VPN, which would be encapsulated within the label stacks covered by this table e
There is no routing participation, so it cannot set up labels across the network core
IPSec or other cryptographic software, representing a considerable saving for the customer in terms of equipment expense and management complexity MPLS VPN security is achieved as described in the following list:
At the ingress service provider edge router, all data for a VPN is assigned a label stack that is unique to the VPN destination This ensures that the data is delivered only to that destination, so data does not leak out of the VPN Any other packet entering the service provider network is either routed without the use of MPLS or is assigned a different label stack, so a malicious third-party cannot insert data into the VPN from outside the service provider network
Features of MPLS
SP routers can use the Cryptographic Algorithm MD5 or similar techniques to protect against insertion of fake labels or LSRs into the label distribution protocols
There are two situations when a customer may still require the use of cryptographic security measures even when using an MPLS VPN solution:
If the customer data is considered sufficiently sensitive that it must be protected against snooping even from within the service provider network, IPSec or similar cryptographic techniques must be applied to the VPN data before it enters the service provider network In this case, the customer retains responsibility for distributing the cryptographic keys When a VPN is served by more than one service provider, the service providers may choose to use IPSec-based tunnels to carry the VPN traffic between their networks on the public IP network if a direct MPLS connection between the service providers is not available In this case, the service providers are responsible for distributing cryptographic keys
438 VPN Implementation Models
Two main implementation models for VPNs have been proposed:
Two Internet Drafts (draft-muthukrishnan-rfc2917bis Core MPLS IP VPN Architecture, and draft-ouldbrahim-vpn-vr Network-Based IP VPN Architecture Using Virtual Routers ) suggest implementing the VPN as a set VRs that each correspond to a separate service provider network IP address within a physical service provider edge router LSP tunnels between the VPN sites are seen by the VRs as virtual interfaces RFC 2547 uses VPN-specific routing and forwarding (VRF) tables within a single router implementation
In terms of data-forwarding function and the VPN types and topologies they can support, both models are identical They can both be used with any of the VPN peer discovery, VPN multiplexing, and label distribution solutions described in earlier sections of this chapter Both schemes can also be implemented in such a way that VPN membership information only needs to be configured once per customer interface to a service provider edge router (though this may be configured to either a VR or the physical router instance) Both schemes can utilize a hardware data plane to give similar data-forwarding performance The conceptual differences between these implementation models only show up when considering the management of the VPN and the service
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