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inherited from acquisitions In this case, the AS-assigned IDs from RFC 2547 may be more convenient These VPN ID formats should either be merged to give a single format (say, by modifying the RFC 2547 format to use a single-byte type field and assigning a new OUI-based type equivalent to RFC 2685) or a decision should be made to use just one of these formats in all future standardization work (for example, when specifying MPLS TE extensions for VPNs)
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Overall Approach to MPLS VPNs Many different options for implementing
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MPLS-based VPNs have been discussed in this chapter, but some make better sense than others Interoperability between router vendors will be achieved more quickly as the spectrum of implementation possibilities is restricted to a few options, such as the following:
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Outer labels should be per peer and, optionally, CoS Inner labels should be per VPN VPN route and label distribution using BGP or OSPF overlays A directory-based solution for VPN peer and route determination TE MIB and RSVP/CR-LDP extensions to allow the setup of label stacks
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Routing Protocol Overlays VPN route and label distribution overlays for the routing protocols need to be defined to be consistent with the chosen format of VPN ID and the overall MPLS VPN approach RFC 2547 does this for BGP, subject to the VPN ID and VPN/CoS multiplexing model chosen Directory Schema A standard directory schema should be defined for
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the definition of VPN membership and routing information This would allow interoperability between routers from multiple vendors with a single directory
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MPLS TE Extensions Extensions to RSVP and CR-LDP are required to enable these protocols to be used for signaling outer and inner tunnels for MPLS VPNs:
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A new Type, Length, and Value (TLV) is needed to carry the VPN ID for a tunnel between the ingress and egress points for the tunnel The TE MIB explicit route hop objects should be extended to allow the specification of the outer tunnel through which a new inner tunnel should be routed
MIBs A new effort in the MPLS Working Group of the IETF is considering
how to configure VPN edge points for MPLS/BGP VPNs A new draft
Features of MPLS
defines the basic building blocks and will be tied into the MPLS model more closely at a later date
Other Items Work may also need to be considered for LDP extensions for VPN-based FECs and CoS attributes for FECs depending on the overall approach taken for MPLS VPNs
4310 Summary of MPLS Capabilities
MPLS provides a step-change improvement in the scalability and ease of provisioning of VPNs over IP networks It also offers enhanced CoS support to enable service providers to offer diffserv levels By leveraging these MPLS facilities, service providers can offer highly cost-effective and competitive VPN solutions to their customers and maximize bandwidth usage across the core network LSP tunnels provide the encapsulation mechanism for VPN traffic Automatic methods for determining VPN routes enable the configuration complexity of an MPLS VPN to scale linearly (order(n)) with the number of sites in the VPN, as opposed to geometric (order(n2)) scaling for other IP-tunneling VPN solutions The best scalability of peer discovery is achieved by overlaying the VPN peer and route discovery using a routing protocol or by use of a directory VPN traffic can be multiplexed onto common outer LSP tunnels in the order that the number of tunnels scales according to the number of service provider edge routers rather than the much larger number of VPN sites serviced by these routers This avoids the scalability problems seen in some ATM or Frame Relay VPN solutions by reducing the problem to order(m) where m is the number of LSRs providing access to n VPN sites and m n Outer LSP tunnels can also be provisioned for different CoS ranges, enabling service providers to customize the way VPN traffic is treated in the network core to match the service levels they want to make available to customers This can be combined with bandwidth reservations for certain CoS ranges or particular dedicated LSP tunnels for a specific customer if required by his or her SLA In the short term, RFC 2547 provides an efficient VPN implementation model In the long term, a VR-based implementation is likely to provide easier management of very complex VPN topologies In the interest of having a single implementation and management model, service providers may also come to use VRs for smaller VPNs despite their lack of efficiency in that case The benefits of using MPLS for VPNs will be magnified if service providers have a choice of interoperable multivendor equipment that supports the VPN solutions Standardization efforts are under way in the IETF MPLS Working Group for the technologies required for such solutions The
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