Figure 1-14 MPLS traffic engineering in C#

Decoder PDF 417 in C# Figure 1-14 MPLS traffic engineering

Figure 1-14 MPLS traffic engineering
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Traffic Engineering Path
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The purpose of traffic engineering is to balance the traffic load on the various links, routers, and switches in the network so that none of these components are overutilized or underutilized25 Traffic engineering enables service providers to fully exploit its network infrastructure This feature can also be useful for route selection in QoS-based applications, such as VoMPLS At the MPLS Working Group meeting held in December 1997, there was consensus that LDP should support the explicit routing of LSPs with a provision for the indication of associated (forwarding) priority Specifications exist for an end-to-end setup mechanism of a CR-LSP initiated by the ingress LSR There are also mechanisms to provide means for the reservation of resources using LDP Procedures exist for the support of the following:
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Strict and loose explicit routing Specification of traffic parameters Route pinning CR-LSP preemption though setup/holding priorities Handling failures Resource class
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Besides the three main facets of MPLS, work is under way in the following areas:
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Layer 2 VPNs over an MPLS core Generalized MPLS (GMPLS) (optical control) VoMPLS Real-time service provisioning Pseudo-wire (PW) emulation end-to-end Differentiated services Convergence of the core network
Several dozen draft documents and other IETF submissions have been generated and 10 RFCs have been created, as seen in Table 1-1 Draft Martini (layer 2 MPLS) defines the support of other transport modes besides routed IP service Examples include transparent LAN service (TLS), ATM, and Frame Relay RFC 2547 specifies IP VPN transport service at layer 3 The VPN logically separates customer traffic across the backbone; BGP permits access between different VPNs Proponents claim that security is as good as Frame Relay PVCs The use of MPLS gives a packet network an increased level of QoS control QoS controls are critical for multimedia applications in intranets, dedicated (WAN) IP networks, VPNs, and a converged Internet QoS requirements for packet networks are coming from many places such as
1
ITU-T, the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), QoS Forum, European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), International Emergency Preference Scheme (IEPS), and so on A couple of different philosophies exist regarding QoS Internet folks take the approach of overprovisioning Incumbent carriers prefer complex controls Technologically, there are three approaches:
Per-flow QoS technology The IETF Integrated Services (intserv) Working Group has developed the following capability:
intserv offers link-level per-flow QoS control RSVP is used for signaling in intserv (MPLS also uses RSVP as a general signaling protocol) The Working Group is now looking at new RSVP extensions intserv services include a guaranteed and a controlled load service These have been renamed by the ITU-T IP traffic control (Yiptc) to delay-sensitive statistical bandwidth capability and delay-insensitive statistical bandwidth capability, respectively The ITU-T Yiptc effort uses intserv services and diffserv Expedited Forwarding (EF)
Class-based QoS technology The IETF Differentiated Services (diffserv) Working Group has developed the following capability:
With diffserv Packets are marked at the network edge (see Figure 1-15 for an example) Routers use markings to decide how to handle packets This approach requires edge policing, but this technology is not yet defined There are four services:
Best efforts Normal (Internet) traffic Seven precedence levels Prioritized classes of traffic EF Leased-line-like service Assured Forwarding (AF) Four queues with three drop classes
Other QoS technologies and ideas A number of ideas come from traditional telcom providers for example, map flow-based QoS into a circuit of some type Examples include
MPLS LSPs ATM VCs Optical lambdas
The optical lambdas approach could make sense for core network trunks, but it resuscitates the old circuit versus packet discussions within the industry Figure 1-16 depicts a timetable for the development of the collection of standards and specifications26 Figure 1-17 depicts the deployment status of
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