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52 Voice Carriage in MPLS
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As noted in the previous section, two approaches are available for carrying voice in MPLS networks Although this book does not favor one approach over the other, VoMPLS is a new technology, and the goal of the book is to
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Motivations, Drivers, Approaches, and Advantages of VoMPLS
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cover new technologies and approaches However, some general principles are as follows The fewer the protocol layers, the better The stronger the QoS mechanism, the better The closer to a flow service, the better chance for a multimedia/voice service VoMPLS could involve establishing label-switched path (LSP) tunnels to act as trunks for multiple calls or setting up LSPs for the duration of individual calls Alternatively, VoMPLS could mean sending voice samples as labeled MPLS packets without including IP headers Whichever approach is used, both the constraint-based routing label distribution protocol (CRLDP) and RSVP are suitable MPLS protocols intserv (particularly RSVP), diffserv, or both will be used by VoMPLS, as noted in Table 5-1 Some people advocate that RSVP (the more expensive solution) needs to be supported by the routers located in the edge of the network and diffserv needs to be supported by the routers located in the core of the network Figure 5-2 depicts the data (user) protocol stack for VoP in general and VoMPLS in particular The following three carriage modes are shown in Figure 5-2: 1 MPLS Voice Type 1 (MVT1) This mode involves the use of H323 higher-layer encapsulation, including IP, which is then carried in MPLS (the transport of IP Packet Data Units [PDUs] in the MPLS shim header is discussed in 3) The advantage of this approach is that it enables developers to reuse the entire H323 apparatus, including the gateway, gatekeeper, terminal stack software, as well as softswitch technology that has already been developed Some minor extensions are needed for MPLS/non-MPLS interworking The problem with this approach is that it adds even more overhead than is already incurred with the nontrivial header sequence of H323, even when compressed Also, there is a philosophical tension in mixing the datagram mode of the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) with the flow mode of MPLS Figure 5-3 provides additional details on this approach 2 MPLS Voice Type 2 (MVT2) This mode involves the use of the H323 encapsulation minus IP The MPLS virtual private network (VPN) tunneling mechanism can be used to achieve LSP-based connections Developers can reuse the major portions of the H323 apparatus, including the gateway, gatekeeper, and terminal stack software Figure 5-4 provides additional details on this approach 3 MPLS Voice Type 3 (MVT3) This is a native mode that is very similar to VoATM, where voice bits are carried directly in the MPLS packet However, issues that have to be resolved here relate to addressing and timing ATM has an addressing scheme (ITU E164) that is used in conjunction with the Virtual Path Identifier/Virtual Channel Identifier (VPI/VCI) label This address is carried in the
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Figure 5-2 Protocol stack for VoP/VoMPLS (data/user plane)
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VoATM Application Layer Voice VoFR Voice VoIP Voice VoMPLS Voice MVT1 H323 Transport/ Networking Layer RTP UDP IP H323 RTP UDP IP H323
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VoMPLS/ Tunnel Voice MVT2 VoMPLS/ Native Voice MVT3
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RTP UDP NULL
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Data Link Layer (WAN)
SAR AAL1,2,5 ATM FR PPP/POS
MPLS
ATM FR PPP
Physical Layer
Async/ SONET
Async
SONET
Async/ SONET
RTP = Real Time Protocol UDP = User Datagram Protocol PPP = Point-to-Point Protocol MVTx = MPLS Voice Type x (x = 1,2,3)
Figure 5-3 MVT1
Audio apps G711 G729 G,7231 RTP
Video apps
Terminal control and management
H261 H263
RTCP
H2250 RAS
H2250 Call signaling
H245 Control signaling
T120 Data
UDP IP
LAN IEEE 8023
MPLS
WAN CR-LDP/RSVP for route management functions Transport
Motivations, Drivers, Approaches, and Advantages of VoMPLS
Figure 5-4 MVT2
Audio apps G711 G729 G7231 RTP UDP NULL (*) WAN
MPLS CR-LDP/RSVP
Video apps
Terminal control and management
H261 H263
RTCP
H2250 RAS
H2250 Call signaling
H245 Control signaling
T120 Data
UDP IP IP
LAN IEEE 8023
MPLS
WAN CR-LDP/RSVP for route management functions Transport
Transport
* Tunnel applications (eg, innercore with administratively provisioned LSPs)
Setup message when the call is first placed Once the call setup is established, the switch will inform the user of the VPI/VCI label that he or she can utilize from that point forward Also, ATM has circuitemulation/timing mechanisms In the packet environment, Expedited Forwarding (EF) from diffserv and MPLS by themselves do not solve the problem because of the need for timing in voice; therefore, an encapsulation like the Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) or something similar is needed A fourth choice (not shown) is to use PW, which is discussed in Section 57 The following is a partial list of work areas that need to be addressed to be able to build interoperable products/networks:1
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