August 1998 October 1998 December 1998 in C#

Decode PDF 417 in C# August 1998 October 1998 December 1998

August 1998 October 1998 December 1998
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The different signaling protocols have been developed in different camps to address the need for real-time session signaling over packet-based networks These protocols have different origins and different supporters with differing priorities H323 was developed in the enterprise LAN community as a videoconferencing technique and has a lot in common with ISDN signaling protocols such as Q931 MGCP/MEGACO comes from the carrier world and is closely associated with the intradomain control of softswitches, media gateways, and so on The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) developed SIP, reusing many familiar Internet elements such as the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension (MIME), and the Domain Name System (DNS) Even though these are all signaling protocols, they are not equals and peers they can and will coexist; however, there is some debate as to what extent Table 7-1 provides a basic comparison among the protocols3
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71 H323 Standards
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According to ITU-T Recommendation H323 version 4, H323 describes terminals and other entities that provide multimedia communications services over Packet-Based Networks (PBNs), which may not provide a guaranteed QoS H323 entities may provide real-time audio, video, and/or data communications 4
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Table 7-1 Comparison Among Three Major Signaling Protocols
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Philosophy Complexity Scope Scalability New service revenues Internet fit SS7 compatibility Cost
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SIP Horizontal Low Simple Good Yes Yes Poor Low
H323 Vertical High Full Poor No No Poor High
MGCP/MEGACO Vertical High Partial Moderate No No Good Moderate
Signaling Issues for Voice over MPLS
H323 is an umbrella standard covering multimedia communications over local area networks (LANs) H323 defines call establishment and teardown, and audio visual or multimedia conferencing H323 defines sophisticated multimedia conferencing supporting applications such as whiteboarding, data collaboration, or videoconferencing Basic call features include call hold, call waiting, call transfer, call forwarding, caller identification, and call park Figure 7-2 depicts the protocol model H323 entities consist of the following (see Figures 7-3 and 7-4):
I I I I
Terminals Gateways Gatekeepers Multipoint control units (MCUs) Protocols consist of the following:
I I I I
Parts of H2250 (RAS) and Q931 The Real-Time Protocol/Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTP/RTCP) Audio/video codecs
Media
AM FL Y
Data/Fax RTCP T120 T38 TCP
H245
Figure 7-2 H323 protocol stack
Call Control and Signaling
Audio Codec G711 G723 3729
Video Codec H261 H263
H225 Q931
H225 RAS
H245
RTP UDP TCP UDP TCP
Figure 7-3 H323 domain (implementation)
Seven
H323 Terminal
H323 Domain Gateway Gatekeeper Wireless LSR/ Router Gateway PSTN
H323 Terminal LSR/ Router
L2 Switch MCU
LSR/ Router
Gateway
ISDN
Gateway
Enterprise Network
Figure 7-4 H323 domain (logical)
Gatekeeper
Multipoint Control Unit
Circuit Switched Networks
Terminal
Gateway
Packet Based Networks
Signaling Issues for Voice over MPLS
711 H323 Entities
Terminals Terminals are end systems (or endpoints) on a LAN (see Figure 7-5) The terminal embodies capabilities that support real-time, twoway communication with another H323 entity The terminal must support voice audio codecs (such as those described in 2, Technologies for Packet-Based Voice Applications ), and signaling and setup Q931, H245, and RAS Optional support includes video coders and data (whiteboarding) Audio codecs (G711, G7231, G728, and so on) and video codecs (H261 and H263) compress and decompress media streams Media streams are transported on RTP/RTCP (RTP carries actual media, whereas RTCP carries status and control information) RTP/RTCP is carried on UDP Signaling is transported reliably over TCP RAS supports registration, admission, and status; Q931 handles call setup and termination; and H245 provides capabilities exchange Gateways Gateways provide interfaces between the LAN and the circuitswitched network Gateways provide translation between entities in a
Figure 7-5 H323 terminal
Microphone/ Speaker
H323 Terminal
Audio G711, G722, G7231, G728, G729
Camera/Display
Video Codes H261, H263 Local Area Network Interface (10/100/1000 Mbps Ethernet)
Data Interface System Control H245 Control System Control User Interface Call Control H225 (Q931) RAS Control (Gatekeeper)
H2250 Layer
Seven
packet-switched network (for example, an IP/MPLS network) and circuitswitched network (for example, a PSTN network) They can also provide transmission format translation, communication procedure translation, H323, and non-H323 endpoint or codec translation Gateways translate communication procedures and formats between networks, and handle call setup and clearing, and the compression and packetization of voice Various types of gateways exist, as shown in Figure 7-3; however, the most common example is an IP/PSTN gateway Naturally, the gateway must support the same protocol stack described previously on the local side Gatekeepers Gatekeepers are optional (for example, Netmeeting does not use gatekeepers), but they must perform certain functions if present Gatekeepers manage a zone (a collection of H323 devices) Usually, there is one gatekeeper per zone; an alternate gatekeeper might also exist for backup and load balancing Typically, gatekeepers are software applications implemented on a PC, but they can be integrated in a gateway or terminal Some protocol messages pass through the gatekeeper, whereas others pass directly between two endpoints The more messages that are routed between the gatekeeper, the more the load and responsibility (more information and control) Notice that media streams never pass through the gatekeeper function Mandatory gatekeeper functions include the following:
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