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needs to focus on core-level needs rather than edge-level needs As you move to the edge of the network, you start to find hundreds, thousands, tens of thousands, and hundreds of thousands of nodes A migration at the edge level is invariably going to take several years, if not even a decade or so Also, there may be international opportunities (to interconnect between continents) and a handful of greenfield applications These are discussed in Section 85 Therefore, the migration to VoMPLS/VoP will likely follow these rules:
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International trunking, national-level trunking, regional-level trunking, local trunking, and local applications Enterprise applications Greenfield applications New services
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National-level networks can be somewhat meshy as shown in the figures in 1, but they also have natural aggregation tiers where the traffic is simply dual homed (for reliability) to two nodes in the higher tier This means that the meshiness exists to some degree within each tier, but not in a wholesale fashion among all nodes in the network Voice networks have been designed and deployed (at least in North America) in a hierarchical manner When considering the national backbone, the opportunity may arise to take advantage of traffic fluctuations in different time zones, for example, from New York to San Francisco Therefore, a network such as the one shown in Figure 8-4 might benefit from MPLS techniques, supporting a
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Figure 8-4 Example of core usage of VoMPLS in Phase 1 of the transition
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Public Network Issues for VoMPLS
VoMPLS design for constrained-based routing (for example, selecting a route that is the least congested at a particular time of the day) Designers need to know the kind of traffic generated by voice (about 200KB per call) Designers also need to urgently understand that traffic in core networks is never bursty unless the network is grossly overdesigned with hundreds of links when dozens would suffice
85 International Opportunities
There have been and continue to be international opportunities in VoP/VoMPLS During the recent past, there has been some success in VoP usage in international routes, as shown in Figure 8-5 Figure 8-6 shows the cost savings achievable by VoP technologies in some selected routes, giving VoP a window of opportunity while the arbitrage exists In countries where there is competition and therefore the emergence of new carriers, a VoP/VoMPLS opportunity exists As shown in Figure 8-7, the pool of such countries is increasing, although there has recently been a major practical retrenchment in North America Figure 8-8 depicts some background factors that affect an international/European deployment of VoP/VoMPLS9 Figure 8-9 provides a snapshot of Internet usage in various countries However, as noted in Figure 8-3, the growth of VoP is expected to be in the telephone-set-to-telephone-set market
Figure 8-5 Importance of VoP in international outgoing traffic Source: ITU Internet Reports, adapted from TeleGeography Inc
IP Telephony Traffic, in million minutes 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 00% 1997 02% 1998 1999 2000 2001 16% 32% 55%
Figure 8-6 VoP advantages in international telephony Source: Summary of ITU country case studies, available at: wwwituint/wtpf/cas estudies: Net2Phone; PTOs
Calls to the United States One minute (USD, February 2000) 16
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IDD IP out IP in
09 08 07 06 05 02 04 02 01 Bolivia Egypt Hungary
06 05 02 02 01 Nepal Singapore Uganda 02
Note: "IDD" refers to published prices from the incumbant operator for international direct calling "IP out" refers to using the Net2Phone IP Telephony service within the country "IP in" refers to using Net2Phone in the United States to call to the country
Figure 8-7 Countries with competition in telecom Source: ITU Telecommunication Regulatory Database
Increasing competition:
by no of countries, by service, 1995-2000
80 70 68
local
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 18 16 13 39 36 49
int
57 53
long distance
Public Network Issues for VoMPLS
Estimates foresee that the international traffic volume will be 40 billion minutes in 2002 The VoIP market in Europe will result in 52 billion minutes European International calls market share, 2002 Global total, 40 billion minute PSTN 87%
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