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Challenge Service providers need to integrate their packet- and circuitswitched infrastructures to save costs and offer data and voice services One attractive service is the ability to carry voice traffic from central offices of facilities-based competitive local exchange carriers (CLECs) Trunking
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voice traffic using a data infrastructure is less expensive than using dedicated circuit-switched infrastructure that may be underutilized Today s enterprise customers are also responding to voice and data convergence by actively seeking solutions that are both robust and low cost These customers are increasingly using data networks to trunk voice traffic between sites for intracompany communications over virtual private networks (VPNs) Instead of using separate dedicated circuits for voice and data, enterprise customers can now use a single data network to carry their voice traffic, avoiding long-distance charges With increasing adoption of voice over IP (VoIP), the landscape for deployment is rapidly changing Service providers are often driven by the need to provide a high grade of service to their customers to carry voice traffic across the network
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872 Cisco MPLS diffserv-Aware Traffic Engineering Solution
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Today s multiservice packet networks rely on IP-based packet switching However, IP by itself is simply a best-effort service, not sufficient enough to provide the strict delay, jitter, and bandwidth guarantees required for voice over IP (VoIP) and other real-time traffic Cisco IOS quality of service (QoS) is ideal for this situation Using the IETF Differentiated Services model (diffserv) for QoS, the network treats VoIP traffic appropriately Although bandwidth is fairly inexpensive today, fiber resources are relatively scarce Adding DWDM trunks can be an expensive proposition without a real need Even for networks with ample bandwidth, an insurance policy is essential to ensure guaranteed quality for voice traffic, regardless of the overall network traffic load Thus, service providers must extract the maximum profit benefit from every bit of bandwidth available While the diffserv model provides for this, a service provider must
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Determine the path that IP routing takes for a particular customer s traffic Provision each router along the path for diffserv Manually ensure that not too many customers pass over that path, to avoid demand in excess of available bandwidth (the over-subscription scenario)
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While this is feasible in a small network, a more scalable way to manage bandwidth is necessary to provide a point-to-point guarantee to the customer Cisco diffserv-Aware Traffic Engineering (DS-TE) is ideal for this situation By automatically choosing a routing path that satisfies the bandwidth constraint for each service class defined (such as Premium,
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Public Network Issues for VoMPLS
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Class 5 Legacy Switches Central Office
Figure 8-10 Comparison between guaranteed bandwidth TE tunnel and regular TE tunnel
PSTN-Traditional TDM Network Traditional Telephony Central Office
Traditional Telephony
V VoIP Gateway Voice Trunking PE CE Enterprise LAN PE
MPLS Network Toll Bypass
V VoIP Gateway PE PE
GB Tunnel Regular TE Tunnel
CE Enterprise LAN
PE VPN Service
AM FL Y
Internet Access Router
Internet Service
Enterprise LAN
Internet Access Router
Enterprise LAN
Legend GB-TE Tunnel Regular TE Tunnel Physical Link
Gold, Silver, or Bronze), using DS-TE relieves the service provider from having to compute the appropriate path for each customer and each service class per customer A number of sites with various types of connectivity where voice trunking or toll-bypass trunking is required are shown in Figure 8-10 The enterprise customer infrastructure could be a voice-over-IP or traditional telephone system
873 Service Characterization
Cisco IOS software enables service providers to implement the QoS capabilities they need to provide voice trunking capability on a data network The service provider has two choices: 1 Over-engineer the network so there is no congestion, under any circumstances 2 Enable QoS in the network for traffic and use other intelligent mechanisms such as DS-TE in MPLS to provide tighter QoS guarantees for bandwidth, delay, and jitter in the network
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The first scenario is rarely the case, as bandwidth is price elastic applications and users will soon utilize the available bandwidth Thus, scenario 2 almost always applies: A network has either transient or persistent congestion The mechanisms a service provider chooses depend on how tight the QoS requirement is For VoIP services or toll-bypass trunking, a service provider must deliver a very low delay, low jitter, and an assured amount of bandwidth Figures 8-11, 8-12 and 8-13 depict various toll-bypass applications Requirements
Bandwidth guarantees Toll-bypass trunking requires the equivalent of an emulated circuit, point to point, with bandwidth guarantees in the network The network devices must be capable of scheduling traffic so that voice traffic always receives its share of the link capacity under any (moderate or heavy) congestion conditions Delay guarantees Bandwidth guarantees don t always ensure a proper delay or jitter guarantee For example, satellite links may provide a bandwidth guarantee but will not meet the delay requirement for tight QoS-based services So, applications such as voice trunking also require a delay guarantee Jitter bounds Voice trunking applications require consistent and predictable network behavior Network devices introduce jitter during traffic queuing and scheduling, regardless of how smooth the initial
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