Technologies for Packet-Based Voice Applications in Visual C#.NET

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Technologies for Packet-Based Voice Applications
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Standards for voice digitization/encoding are crucial in order for you to be able to interconnect and interwork any two telephones in the world Table 2-2 depicts some of the key standards relevant to VoP networks that have emerged in the past decade The International Telecommunications Union (ITU), which publishes the recommendations, is a body within the United Nations Economic, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) In the ITU-T (the sector dedicated to telecommunications), Study Group 15 (SG 15) is charged with making recommendations related to speech and videoprocessing Table 2-2 International Standards for Speech Compression
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ITU G720 ITU G721 ITU G722 ITU G711 Pulse Code Modulation of Voice Frequencies, November 1988 64-Kbps PCM for both the A-law and -law G711 Appendix II (02/00): A comfort noise payload definition for ITU-T G711 used in packet-based multimedia communication systems G711 Appendix I (09/99): A high-quality, low-complexity algorithm for packet loss concealment with G711 Characterization of low-rate digital voice coder performance with nonvoice signals, July 1995 A 32-Kbps adaptive differential pulse code modulation (ADPCM), November 1988 Original ADPCM recommendation 7-kHz audio coding within 64 Kbps, March 1993 Wideband vocoder operating at 64, 56, or 48 Kbps ITU G7221 ITU G723 ITU G7231 Coding at 24 and 32 Kbps for hands-free operation in systems with low frame loss, January 1999 Extensions of G721 adaptive differential PCM to 24 and 40 Kbps for digital circuit multiplication equipment application, November 1988 Dual-Rate Speech Coder for Multimedia Communications Transmitting at 53 and 63 Kbps, March 1996 Low-bit-rate vocoder for multimedia communications operating at 63 and 53 Kbps (This vocoder has siglum as an extension (1) because all the numbers in the G series have been used already) ITU G724 ITU G725 ITU G726 Characteristics of a 48-channel low-bit-rate encoding primary multiplex operating at 1,544 Kbps, November 1988 System aspects for the use of the 7-kHz audio codec within 64 Kbps, November 1988 40-, 32-, 24-, and 16-Kbps Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM), March 1991 ADPCM vocoder recommendation that folds G721 and original G723 ITU G727 5-, 4-, 3- and 2-bit Sample Embedded Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation, November 1994 Embedded ADPCM operating at 40, 32, 24, or 16 Kbps (continued)
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Table 2-2 International Standards for Speech Compression (continued)
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ITU G728
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Coding of Speech at 16 Kbps Using Low-Delay Code-Excited Linear Prediction, November 1994 16-Kbps low-delay code-excited linear prediction vocoder (LD-CELP) ITU G729 Coding of Speech at 8 Kbps Using Conjugate-Structure Algebraic Code-Excited Linear Predictive (CS-ACELP) Coding, March 1996 8-Kbps conjugate-structure algebraic code-excited linear-prediction (CS-ACELP) ITU G764 Voice Packetization Packetized voice protocols, December 1990
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Note: The most important standards are shown in bold
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The following list provides a snapshot view of some of the commercially available vocoders15 Additional information on these vocoders is provided in the second part of the chapter
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Vocoders at a Snapshot
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G711 Speech Coder A-law/m-law (PCM) coding of speech at 64 Kbps The speech coder is implemented as an encoder and decoder with an option to select A-law/m-law and multiple frame sizes at compilation/run time G722 Speech Coder Variable-Rate Wideband Audio Coder, which compresses 16-kHz linear PCM input data to 48, 56, and 64 Kbps and decodes into one of three bit rates G722 is a mandatory coding scheme for wideband audio for videoconferencing G7231 Dual-Rate Speech Coder with Annex A Encoding 8-kHz sampled speech signals for transmission at a rate of either 63 or 53 Kbps G7231 provides near toll-quality performance under clean channel conditions The coder operates on 30-ms frames with 75 ms of look-ahead The coder offers good speech quality in network impairments such as frame loss and bit errors, and is suitable for applications such as voice over Frame Relay (VoFR), teleconferencing or visual telephony, wireless telephony, and voice logging Additional bandwidth savings are possible via voice activity detection and comfort noise generation (CNG) G726 ADPCM Waveform Coder G726 compresses speech and other audio signal components of multimedia This coder accepts A-law or m-law PCM speech samples and compresses it at
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