Examples of Microprocessor Power, Measured in MIPS in C#.NET

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Table 2-6 Examples of Microprocessor Power, Measured in MIPS
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MC 68000 (8 MHz) [68,000 transistors] StrongARM (Newton MessagePad 2100) [25 million transistors] SGI Indy-R4400 [23 million transistors] PowerPC 604e (300 MHz) [5 million transistors] PowerPC G3 (750/300 MHz) [64 million transistors] Pentium II [75 million transistors] SGI Octane R10000 [68 million transistors]
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1 MIPS 185 MIPS 250 MIPS 500 MIPS 750 MIPS 500 MIPS 800 MIPS
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Technologies for Packet-Based Voice Applications
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Figure 2-14 Example of processor power: Motorola s Embedded PowerPC Source: Motorola
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Performance (MPS)
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250-350 MHz
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300 MHz
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604e
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High Performance 180-233 MHz 740 Embedded 604e and Computing 200-266 MHz Processors 603e
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200-300 MHz
Embedded Feature-Optimized Processors
EC603e 200-300 MHz
603e
166-200 MHz
EC603e 166-200 MHz
66-80 MHz
100-133 MHz
603e
100-133 MHz 66 MHz 50 MHz 33 MHz 25-33 MHz
EC603e 100-133 MHz 33-66 MHz 33-66 MHz 860SAR
Wireless Consumer Computing Networking Next Generation
Integrated Communications Processors
509 505
860 801
860T 850 850
66 MHz 50 MHz
25-40 MHz
25-55 MHz
AM FL Y
25-66 MHz 33 MHz
1999-2000
241 Overview
As noted earlier, the design goal of vocoders is to reduce the bit rate of speech for transmission or storage while maintaining a quality level that is acceptable for the application at hand On intranets and the Internet, voice applications may be stand-alone or multimedia based Because multimedia implies the presence of a number of media, speech coding for multimedia applications implies that the speech bit stream shares the communication link with other signals Some such applications include
Simultaneous voice and video, for example, a videophone, stored video presentation, and so on Digital simultaneous voice and data (DSVD) whiteboarding applications, where the data stream could be the transmission of
low-bit-rate multimedia communications These vocoders use the same bit stream format and can interoperate with one another97 The basic concept of CELP was discussed in generality earlier in the chapter Additional details are provided here Figure 2-15 shows the operation of a CELP (G729) coder at a very high level Figure 2-16 compares the MOS of a number of coding algorithms discussed in this section
Figure 2-15 Block diagram of conceptual CELP synthesis model
Excitation Codebook Long-term synthesis filter Short-term synthesis filter Post filter Output speech
2
Parameter decoding
Received bitstream
Voice Quality (Mean Opinion Score - MOS)
45 C5-ACELP G729A 40 G7231 H323 35
LD-CELP G728
16 Bit Rate (Kbps)
shared files that the parties are developing, discussing, creating, updating, or synthesizing
Simultaneous voice and fax, where a copy of a document is transmitted from one person to a group of one or more recipients
In principle, the use of a uniquely specified vocoder might be desirable Unfortunately, short-term local optimization considerations have lead developers to the conclusion that it is more economical to tailor the vocoder to each application Consequently, a number of new vocoders were standardized during the mid-1990s Specifically, three new international standards (ITU-T Recommendations G729, G729A, and G7231) and three new regional standards (enhanced full-rate vocoders for North American [IS-54 8 Kbps] and European [GSM RPE-LTP 13 Kbps] mobile systems) have recently emerged As a consequence of this overabundance of standards, making an appropriate choice can be challenging Vocoder attributes
"Toll Quality"
Figure 2-16 MOS of various coding schemes
50 ADPCM PCM G726 G711
Technologies for Packet-Based Voice Applications
can be used to make trade-off analyses during the vocoder selection process that the developer of carrier, intranet, Internet multimedia, or telephony application needs to undertake Vocoder Attributes Vocoder speech quality is a function of bit rate, complexity, and processing delay Developers of carrier, intranet, or Internet telephony products must review all these attributes There is usually a strong interdependence between all these attributes, and they may have to be traded off against each other For example, low-bit-rate vocoders tend to have more delay than higher-bit-rate vocoders Low-bit-rate vocoders also require higher VLSI complexity to implement As might be expected, often low-bit-rate vocoders have lower speech quality than the higher-bit-rate vocoders98
Bit Rate Bandwidth efficiency is always at the top of the list for design engi-
neers Their thinking is that since the vocoder is sharing the access communications channel or the likely overloaded enterprise network/Internet with other information streams, the peak bit rate should be as low as possible Bandwidth limitations may not be an issue for carrier networks that are designed from the bottom up to support VoP or VoMPLS Today, most vocoders operate at a fixed bit rate regardless of the input signal characteristics; however, the goal is to make the vocoder variable rate For simultaneous voice and data applications, a compromise is to create a silence compression mechanism as part of the coding standard (see Table 2-7) A common solution is to use a fixed rate for active speech and a low rate for background noise99 The performance of the silence compression mechanism is critical to speech quality: If speech is declared too often, the gains of silence compression are not realized The challenge is that for (loud) background noises, it may be difficult to distinguish between speech and noise Another problem is that if the silence compression mechanism fails to recognize the onset of speech, the beginning of the speech will be cut off; this front-end clipping significantly impairs the intelligibility of the coded speech
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