RSPV Messages in Visual C#

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RSPV Messages
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Path Sent by a sender and records a path between sender and receiver Resv Sent by a receiver to reserve resources along path ResvErr and PathErr Errors ResvTear and PathTear The teardown of a reservation or path ResvConf Confirmation
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rsvp RSVP daemon PC AC data
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Figure 3-5 RSVP classifier function
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Integrated Services: Building Blocks: Router
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RSVP daemon PC AC
classifier
scheduler
classifier
scheduler
you require a refresher or basic introduction, you should skip to the appendix at this point As noted, RSVP plays two roles in MPLS It can support an intserv view of QoS and can also be used as a signaling protocol for distributing labels, as discussed previously In the mid-1990s, RSVP was developed to address network congestion by allowing routers to decide in advance whether they could meet the requirements of an application flow and then reserve the desired resources if they were available RSVP was originally designed to
Figure 3-6 RSVP flow descriptors
Flow Data
specification of packets belonging to a flow eg source addr, source port
3
Filterspec =
Flow Descriptor =
source
Tspec= source behavior, rate, burstiness
Flowspec =
network
Rspec= reservation, eg delay or priority
install forwarding state associated with resource reservations for individual traffic flows between hosts7 The physical path of the flow across a service provider s network was determined by conventional destination-based routing (for example, the Routing Information Protocol [RIP], Open Shortest Path First [OSPF], and the Interior Gateway Protocol [IGP]) By the late 1990s, RSVP became a proposed standard and has since been implemented in IP networking equipment However, RSVP has not been widely used in service provider/carrier networks because of concerns about its scalability and the overhead required to support potentially millions of host-to-host flows Informational document RFC 220813 discusses issues related to the scalability posed by the signaling, classification, and scheduling mechanisms An important consequence of this problem is that intserv-level QoS can only be provided within peripheral areas of a large network, preventing its extension inside core areas and the implementation of end-to-end QoS IETF RSVP-related Working Groups have undertaken some work to overcome these problems The RSVP Working Group has recently published RFC 2961, which describes a set of techniques to reduce the overhead of RSVP signaling; however, this RFC does not deal with the classification problem, which is still to be addressed The Internet Draft Aggregation of RSVP for IPv4 and IPv6 Reservations, by F Baker, C Iturralde, F Le Faucheur, and B Davie14 discusses the possibility of aggregating RSVP sessions into a larger one The aggregated RSVP session uses a DSCP for its traffic Such a solution wastes the undoubted benefits given by the intserv quantitative QoS approach12
Quality of Service (QoS)
322 Class-Based QoS Technology
The IETF diffserv Working Group has developed the following capability:
I I I
Packets are marked at network edge Routers use markings to decide how to handle packets This approach requires edge policing, but this technology is not yet defined There are four services:
Best efforts Normal Internet traffic Seven precedence levels Prioritized classes of traffic EF Leased-line-like service Assured Forwarding (AF) Four queues with three drop classes
323 Other QoS Technologies/Ideas
A number of ideas come from traditional telcom providers, for example, mapping flow-based QoS into a circuit of some type Examples include
I I I
MPLS LSPs ATM VCs Optical lambdas
(Optical lambdas could make sense for core network trunks, but it resuscitates the old circuit versus packet discussions within the industry) Packet purists will probably argue that diffserv is the best approach because there is very little if any state information kept along the route, while folks in the carriers camp will probably argue that intserv is a better approach because resource reservations and allocations can be better managed in the network in terms of being able to engineer networks and maintain SLAs It is within reason to assume that if the design is properly supported by statistically valid and up-to-date demand information, and resources are quickly added when needed, both approaches will probably provide reasonable results Table 3-6 depicts a mapping between the various QoS classes advanced by developers At face value, diffserv appears to be able to scale more easily than intserv; also, it is simpler You cannot generalize as to which of these techniques is better for VoMPLS because the decision will have to be based on the type of network architecture you choose to implement You cannot argue that a metric wrench is better than a regular wrench If you are working on a European-made engine, then the metric wrench is obviously superior; if you are working on a US-built engine, then regular wrenches are the
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