Figure 3-15 MPLS diffserv modes in Visual C#.NET

Decode PDF 417 in Visual C#.NET Figure 3-15 MPLS diffserv modes

Figure 3-15 MPLS diffserv modes
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Copy DSCP to EXP Push Label DSCP=x EXP=x Ingress LSR LSP UNIFORM MODE PHP PoP Label
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DSCP=x
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DSCP=x Egress LSR
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Push Label EXP=y DSCP=x Customer Router Ingress LSR DSCP=x EXP=x
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PoP Label use EXP=y for outbound PHB
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Outbound PHB Driven by DSCP=x
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DSCP=x Customer Router
SHORT PIPE MODE
Push Label EXP=y DSCP=x Customer Router Ingress LSR
Need to convey EXP to egress LSR so can't do PHP DSCP=x EXP=x PHP LSP PIPE MODE
PoP Label use EXP=y for outbound PHB
DSCP=x EXP=x
DSCP=x Egress LSR Customer Router
PHP = Peaultimate Hop Popping
another policy; the assumption is that the customer desires to preserve its DSCP from edge to edge 3 IP PHB not MPLS PHB and egress queue scheduling based on MPLS PHB (pipe) This is the same as the short pipe, but the carrier opts to drive the outbound classification for queue management and scheduling on the outbound egress interface, from the ingress LSR to the customer equipment, based on its (carrier) diffserv policy as embodied in the EXP bits Overall Operations For a given FEC, the specification allows any one of the following combinations within an MPLS diffserv domain:
Quality of Service (QoS)
Zero or any number of E-LSPs Zero or any number of L-LSPs
At every LSR and for every interface, the service provider configures the scheduling behavior for each PSC (for example, the bandwidth allocated to AF1) and the dropping behavior for each PHB (for example, the drop profile for AF11, AF12, and AF13) LSRs signal establishment of a single E-LSP per FEC using LDP in accordance with the previous specification (that is, no diffserv TLV in LDP Label Request/Label Mapping messages to implicitly indicate that the LSP is an E-LSP and that it uses the preconfigured mapping)
Relationship Between Label and FEC RFC 3031 states that Some routers analyze a packet s network layer header not merely to choose the packet s next hop, but also to determine a packet s precedence or class of service They may then apply different discard thresholds or scheduling disciplines to different packets MPLS allows (but does not require) the precedence or class of service to be fully or partially inferred from the label
The service provider configures the bidirectional mapping between each PHB and a value of the EXP field at every LSR (for example, 000 -- AF11, 001 -- AF12, and 010 -- AF13)
AM FL Y
The network administrator selects the actual combination of LSPs from the set of allowed combinations and selects how the BAs are actually transported over this combination of LSPs in order to best match his/her environment and objectives in terms of diffserv support, traffic engineering, and MPLS protection For a given FEC, there may be more than one LSP carrying the same OA, for example, for purposes of load balancing of the OA; however, in order to respect ordering constraints, all packets of a given microflow, possibly spanning multiple BAs of a given OA, must be transported over the same LSP Conversely, each LSP must be capable of supporting all the (active) BAs of a given OA A simple example follows (the specification includes a more extensive set of examples) A scenario with eight (or fewer) BAs, no traffic engineering, and no MPLS protection is examined A service provider running eight (or fewer) BAs over MPLS, not performing traffic engineering, not using MPLS protection, and using MPLS shim header encapsulation in his/her network may elect to run diffserv over MPLS using a single E-LSP per FEC established via LDP Furthermore, the service provider may elect to use the preconfigured EXP -- PHB mapping Operations can be summarized as follows:
3
In this case, one may say that the label represents the combination of an FEC and a precedence or class of service In line with this, observe the following:
With E-LSPs, the label represents the combination of an FEC and the set of BAs transported over the E-LSP After all the supported BAs are transported over an E-LSP, the label then represents the complete FEC With L-LSPs, the label represents the combination of an FEC and an OA
Bandwidth Reservation for E-LSPs and L-LSPs Regardless of which label-binding protocol is used, E-LSPs and L-LSPs may be established with or without bandwidth reservation Establishing an E-LSP or L-LSP with bandwidth reservation means that bandwidth requirements for the LSP are signaled at LSP establishment time Such signaled bandwidth requirements may be used by LSRs at establishment time to perform admission control of the signaled LSP over the diffserv resources provisioned (for example, via configuration, Simple Network Management Protocol [SNMP], or policy protocols) for the relevant PSC(s) Such signaled bandwidth requirements may also be used by LSRs at establishment time to perform adjustment to the diffserv resources associated with the relevant PSC(s) (for example, adjusting PSC scheduling weight) Note that establishing an E-LSP or L-LSP with bandwidth reservation does not mean that per-LSP scheduling is required Because E-LSPs and L-LSPs are specified in this document for support of diffserv, the required forwarding treatment (scheduling and drop policy) is defined by the appropriate diffserv PHB This forwarding treatment must be applied by the LSR at the granularity of the BA and must be compliant with the relevant PHB specification When bandwidth requirements are signaled at establishment of an L-LSP, the signaled bandwidth is obviously associated with the L-LSP s PSC Thus, LSRs that use the signaled bandwidth to perform admission control may perform admission control over diffserv resources that are dedicated to the PSC (for example, over the bandwidth guaranteed to the PSC through its scheduling weight) When bandwidth requirements are signaled at the establishment of an E-LSP, the signaled bandwidth is associated collectively to the whole LSP and therefore to the set of transported PSCs Thus, LSRs that use the signaled bandwidth to perform admission control may perform admission control over global resources that are shared by the set of PSCs (for example, over the total bandwidth of the link)
Quality of Service (QoS)
Label Forwarding Model for diffserv LSRs and Tunneling Models Because different OAs of a given FEC may be transported over different LSPs, the label-swapping decision of a diffserv LSR clearly depends on the forwarded packet s BA Also, because the IP DS field of a forwarded packet may not be directly visible to an LSR, the way to determine the PHB to be applied to a received packet and to encode the PHB into a transmitted packet is different than that of a non-MPLS diffserv router Thus, in order to describe label forwarding by diffserv LSRs, you can model the LSR diffserv label-switching behavior as comprising four stages (see Figure 3-16):
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