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Motivations, Developments, and Opportunities in VoP
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application data traverses Providing the deterministic service using the nondeterministic IP network presents a major challenge
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Current routing technology utilizes the best available path information based only on the destination address; the application data s attributes are not considered As the network grows, there is an increased demand on the routers to handle large amounts of routing information in addition to applications data Besides, the forwarding decision made at each hop as a packet travels from one router hop to another inhibits scalability and performance
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MPLS addresses some of these issues In MPLS packets are forwarded based on short labels The traditional IP header analysis is not performed at the endpoint of each hop; instead, each packet is assigned to a flow once when it enters the network MPLS utilizes the layer 3 routing information while performing the switching at layer 2 (using hardware support) Consequently, MPLS results in the high-speed routing of information (data, voice, video, and multimedia) through the network based on parameters such as QoS and application requirements MPLS is yet another type of network compared with IP, Frame Relay, and ATM Some key highlights of the protocol are as follows:21
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It improves packet-forwarding performance in the network
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MPLS enhances and simplifies packet forwarding through routers using layer 2 switching paradigms MPLS is simple, which enables easy implementation MPLS increases network performance because it enables routing by switching at wireline speeds MPLS uses a traffic-engineered path setup and helps achieve servicelevel guarantees MPLS incorporates provisions for constraint-based and explicit path setup MPLS can be used to avoid the n-squared overlay problem associated with meshed IP-ATM networks MPLS provides a bridge between access IP and core ATM MPLS can reuse existing router/ATM switch hardware, effectively joining the two disparate networks
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It supports QoS and CoS for service differentiation
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It supports network scalability
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It integrates IP and ATM in the network
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It builds interoperable networks
MPLS is a standards-based solution that achieves synergy between IP and ATM networks MPLS facilitates IP over Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) integration in optical switching MPLS helps build scalable VPNs with its traffic-engineering capability
In MPLS, the packet-forwarding functions are decoupled from the route management functions (see Figure 1-8) MPLS does not replace IP routing, but it works alongside existing routing technologies to provide very highspeed data forwarding between label-switched routers (LSRs) Figure 1-9 further highlights the separation of functions A typical network is shown in Figure 1-1022 Figure 1-11 depicts the basic operation of MPLS Table 1-1 identifies 10 key RFCs supporting MPLS that were available at the time of this writing There were about 25 other Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Internet drafts and approximately 100 individual submission papers to IETF on this topic As of this writing, there were no drafts or submittals on VoMPLS The LSRs provide a connection-oriented service (like ATM and Frame Relay permanent virtual circuits [PVCs]) using label-switched paths (LSPs) At each node, the label on the incoming packet is used for table lookup to determine the outbound link and a new label This is the labelswapping mechanism A new shim header is required except on links to ATM switches, which reuse Virtual Path Identifier/Virtual Channel Identifier (VPI/VCI) fields in cells Labels have local (single-hop) significance only
Figure 1-8 Separation of functions
Routing Management
Routing Table
Route Control Processor
Incoming Packets
Packet Forwarding Engine
Outgoing Packets
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Control Plane
MPLS
Figure 1-9 Control/data plane in MPLS
Addressing Signaling Routing
IP CR-LDP or RSVP-TE OSPF-TE, ISIS-TE
Data Plane
Cells & Frames & Optical ISIS: Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System CR-LDP: Constrain-based Routed Label Distribution Protocol RSVP-TE: Resource Reservation Protocol-Traffic Engineering
Figure 1-10 MPLS elements
An LSR is a high-speed router device in the core of an MPLS network that participates in the establishment of LSPs using the appropriate label signaling protocol and high-speed switching of the data traffic based on the established paths
INGRESS Edge LSR
P LS
Core LSR EGRESS Core LSR Edge LSR
Core LSR
(also known as LER: Label Edge Router)
Core LSR
Core
An LER is a device that operates at the edge of the access network and MPLS network LERs support multiple ports connected to dissimilar networks (such as frame relay, ATM, and Ethernet) and forwards this traffic on to the MPLS network after establishing LSPs, using the label signaling protocol at the ingress and distributing the traffic back to the access networks at the egress The LER plays a very important role in the assignment and removalof labels, as traffic enters or exits an MPLS network
The forward equivalence class (FEC) is a representation of a group of packets that share the same requirements for their transport All packets in such a group are provided the same treatment en route to the destination As opposed to conventional IP forwarding, in MPLS, the assignment of a particular packet to a particular FEC is done just once, as the packet enters the network FECs are based on service requirements for a given set of packets or simply for an address prefix Each LSR builds a table to specify how a packet must be forwarded This table, called a label information base (LIB), is comprised of FEC-to-label bindings
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