how to read data from barcode scanner in c# Figure 4-2 Label stacks across the backbone in C#

Scanner PDF-417 2d barcode in C# Figure 4-2 Label stacks across the backbone

Figure 4-2 Label stacks across the backbone
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topmost label is transmitted first and is the only label used for routing the packet until it is popped from the stack and the next highest label becomes the top label The bottom label of a stack (the red and blue labels in Figure 4-2) is usually taken from a per-platform label space (the global label space) as this enables the outer tunnel to be rerouted when necessary (Rerouting an outer tunnel may result in that outer tunnel being received at its egress through a different physical interface from the one originally used when the inner tunnel was set up This could lead to confusion about the interpretation of the lower label unless it is taken from a label space that is interpreted in the same way, regardless of the incoming interface) For MPLS networks based on ATM equipment, it is attractive to consider using the VPI as the outer label and the VCI as the inner label However, this places constraints on the number of outer and inner labels that may be too restrictive for a carrier that needs to support thousands of tunnels across the backbone An alternative in such cases is to carry the inner label in a shim header below an outer VPI/VCI-based label Although this method of label stacking in ATM means that the label stack cannot be fully implemented in standard ATM hardware, it does overcome other problems, not the least of which is that some ATM hardware is incapable of performing VPI switching
412 Traffic Engineering
There are currently two label distribution protocols that provide support for traffic engineering: RSVP and CR-LDP Although the two protocols provide a similar level of service, they operate in different ways and offer different detailed functions Hardware vendors and network providers need clear information to help them decide which protocol to implement in a trafficengineered MPLS network Each protocol has its champions and detractors, and the specifications are still under development This topic is covered in Section 42
413 Overview of VPN Requirements
RFC 2764 defines a generic framework for IP-based VPNs, including the following requirements for a VPN solution:
Opaque transport of data between VPN sites because the customer may be using non-IP protocols or locally administered IP addresses that are not unique across the service provider network
Features of MPLS
Security of VPN data transport to avoid misdirection, modification, spoofing, or snooping of the customer data QoS guarantees to meet the business requirements of the customer in terms of bandwidth, availability, and latency
In addition, the management model for IP-based VPNs must be sufficiently flexible to enable both the customer and the service provider to manage a VPN In the case where a service provider allows one or more customers to manage their own VPNs, the service provider must ensure that the management tools provide security against the actions of one customer adversely affecting the level of service provided to other customers Four types of VPN are defined in RFC 2764:
Virtual leased lines (VLL) These VPNs provide connectionoriented, point-to-point links between customer sites The customer perceives each VLL as a dedicated private (physical) link, although it is provided by an IP tunnel across the backbone network The IP tunneling protocol used over a VLL must be capable of carrying any protocol that the customer uses between the sites connected by that VLL Virtual private LAN segments (VPLS) These VPNs provide an emulated LAN (ELAN) between the VPLS sites As with VLLs, a VPLS VPN requires use of IP tunnels that are transparent to the protocols carried on the ELAN The LAN may be emulated by using a mesh of tunnels between the customer sites or by mapping each VPLS to a separate multicast IP address Virtual private routed networks (VPRNs) These VPNs emulate a dedicated IP-based routed network between the customer sites Although a VPRN carries IP traffic, it must be treated as a separate routing domain from the underlying service provider network because the VPRN is likely to make use of nonunique customer-assigned IP addresses Each customer network perceives itself as operating in isolation and disjoint from the Internet it is, therefore, free to assign IP addresses in whatever manner it likes These addresses must not be advertised outside the VPRN since they cannot be guaranteed to be unique more widely than the VPN itself Virtual private dial networks (VPDNs) These VPNs enable customers to outsource to the service provider the provisioning and management of dial-in access to their networks Instead of each customer setting up his or her own access servers and using PPP sessions between a central location and remote users, the service provider provides one or many shared access servers PPP sessions for each VPDN are tunneled from the service provider access server to an access point into each customer s network, which is known as the access concentrator
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