Features of MPLS in C#.NET

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Features of MPLS
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Traffic Engineering Traffic engineering is the process where data is routed through the network according to a management view of the availability of resources and the current and expected traffic The class of service (CoS) and QoS required for the data can also be factored into this process Traffic engineering may be under the control of manual operators They monitor the state of the network, and route the traffic or provision additional resources to compensate for problems as they arise Alternatively, traffic engineering may be driven by automated processes reacting to information fed back through routing protocols or other means Traffic engineering helps the network provider make the best use of available resources, spreading the load over the layer 2 links and allowing some links to be reserved for certain classes of traffic or for particular customers One of the main uses for MPLS will be to provide improved traffic engineering on the ISP backbone networks Service-Level Contracts Many uses of the Internet require particular levels of service to be supplied For example, voice traffic requires low delay and very small delay variation Video traffic adds the requirement for high bandwidth Customers increasingly demand service contracts that guarantee the performance and availability of the network In the past, in order to meet these requirements, network providers had to overprovision their physical networks MPLS offers a good way to avoid this issue by allocating the network resources to particular flows using constraint-based routing of LSPs VPNs A VPN enables a customer to extend his or her private network across a wider public network in a secure way Internet service providers (ISPs) offer this service by ensuring that entry points to their network can exchange data only if they are configured as belonging to the same VPN MPLS LSPs provide an excellent way to offer this service over an IP network Meeting the Needs of the Modern Network VPNs have been addressed with additions to the BGP routing protocol, but IP has not provided good solutions to the requirements set out in the previous three sections There has been no way of providing a guarantee of service because the network is connectionless Destination-based routing along the shortest path routes tends to overload some links and leave others unused A popular solution is to use an overlay network for example, running IP over ATM permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) This is notoriously hard to manage because many resources must be configured at each router in the network and because there are two distinct protocols to be configured It
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also leads to scaling issues, with an order of n-squared connections needed in a network with n nodes MPLS permits the use of just one set of protocols in the network Using MPLS to meet the aims described in the previous three sections while avoiding the problems just described requires a label distribution protocol that supports explicit routes and constraint-based routing There are currently two label distribution protocols that meet this definition: CR-LDP and RSVP There is a debate about which of these protocols is preferable, which is most suitable for particular scenarios, and whether it is necessary to implement both of the protocols in an MPLS network Because the LSPs set up to support traffic engineering, service contracts, and VPNs are all configured in the same way for RSVP and CR-LDP (through the traffic-engineering MIB), they are referred to as trafficengineered LSPs
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423 Basic Introduction to CR-LDP
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CR-LDP is a set of extensions to LDP specifically designed to facilitate constraint-based routing of LSPs Like LDP, it uses Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) sessions between LSR peers and sends label distribution messages along the sessions This enables it to assume the reliable distribution of control messages The basic flow for the LSP setup using CR-LDP is shown in Figure 4-3 The following list describes the basic setup flow in Figure 4-3 1 The ingress LSR, LSR A, determines that it needs to set up a new LSP to LSR C The traffic parameters required for the session or administrative policies for the network enable LSR A to determine that the route for the new LSP should go through LSR B, which might not be the same as the hop-by-hop route to LSR C LSR A builds a Label Request message with an explicit route of (B, C) and details of the traffic parameters requested for the new route LSR A reserves the resources it needs for the new LSP, and then forwards the Label Request message to LSR B on the TCP session 2 LSR B receives the Label Request message, determines that it is not the egress for this LSP, and forwards the request along the route specified in the message It reserves the resources requested for the new LSP, modifies the explicit route in the Label Request message, and passes the message to LSR C If necessary, LSR B may reduce the reservation it makes for the new LSP if the appropriate parameters were marked as negotiable in the Label Request message 3 LSR C determines that it is the egress for this new LSP It performs any final negotiation on the resources and makes the reservation for
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