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ware without recourse to software In this respect, the lambda network is similar to an ATM network; the MPLS labels are identified with individual wavelengths The number of wavelengths is, however, very small too small for the likely number of LSPs transiting any one link Additionally, the capabilities of an individual wavelength are far in excess of the normal requirements of an LSP, so such a one-to-one mapping would be highly wasteful of network resources The MPLS Working Group is currently considering some early drafts that address these issues The approach being looked at involves sharing a wavelength between multiple LSPs and is equally applicable to RSVP and CR-LDP Traffic Control Significantly, CR-LDP and RSVP perform resource reservation at different times in the process of LSP setup CR-LDP carries the full traffic parameters on the Label Request This enables each hop to perform traffic control on the forward portion of LSP setup The traffic parameters can be negotiated as the setup progresses, and the final values are passed back on the Label Mapping, enabling the admission control and resource reservation to be updated at each LSR This approach means that an LSP will not be set up on a route where there are insufficient resources RSVP carries a set of traffic parameters the Tspec on the Path message This describes the data that is likely to use the LSP Intermediate LSPs can examine this information and make routing decisions based on it However, it is not until the egress LSR is reached that the Tspec is converted to a Flowspec returned on the Resv message, which gives details of the resource reservation required for the LSP This means that the reservation does not take place until the Resv passes through the network, with the result that LSP setup may fail on the selected route because of resource shortage RSVP includes an optional function (Adspec) whereby the available resources on a link can be reported on the Path message This enables the egress LSR to know what resources are available and to modify the Flowspec on the Resv accordingly Unfortunately, not only does this function require that all the LSRs on the path support the option, but it has an obvious window where resources reported on a Path message may already have been used by another LSP by the time the Resv is received A partial solution for RSVP LSRs lies within the implementation, which could make a provisional reservation of resources as it processes the Path message This reservation can only be approximate since it is based on the Tspec and not the Flowspec, but it can considerably ease the problem CR-LDP offers a slightly tighter approach to traffic control especially in heavily used networks, but individual RSVP implementations can provide a solution that is almost as good
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Policy Control RSVP is specified to enable the Path and Resv messages to carry a policy object with opaque content This data is used when processing messages to perform policy-based admission control This enables Labels RSVP to be tied closely to policy-policing protocols such as Common Open Policy Service (COPS) using the Internet Draft COPS Usage for RSVP By contrast, CR-LDP currently only carries implicit policy data in the form of the destination addresses and the administrative resource class in the traffic parameters Layer 3 Protocol Although an LSP can carry any data, there are occasions when knowledge of the layer 3 protocol can be useful to an intermediate or egress LSR If an intermediate LSR is unable to deliver a packet (because of a resource failure, for example), it can return an error packet specific to the layer 3 protocol (such as Internet Control Message Protocol [ICMP] for IP packets) to notify the sender of the problem For this to work, the LSR that detects the error must know the layer 3 protocol in use Also, at an egress, it may help the LSR to forward data packets if the layer 3 protocol is known RSVP identifies a single payload protocol during LSP setup, but there is no scope within the protocol for CR-LDP to do this Even RSVP is unable to help when more than one protocol is routed to a particular LSP Recent discussions in the MPLS Working Group have considered options for identifying the payload protocol in CR-LDP and for marking the payload packets so that their protocol can be easily determined QoS and diffserv CR-LDP and RSVP have different approaches to QoS parameters, as discussed in 3 Quality of Service (QoS) The RSVP Tspec object carried on Path messages describes the data that will flow rather than the QoS that is required from the connection Various RFCs and Internet Drafts describe how to map from different QoS requirements to the Tspec (for example, RFC 2210 The Use of RSVP with IETF Integrated Services ) The CR-LDP specification is more explicit about how the information carried on a Label Request message is mapped for QoS Support for IP Differentiated Services (diffserv) is addressed by an Internet Draft (draft-ietfmpls-diff-ext), which defines extensions to LDP, RSVP, and CR-LDP When implemented, this draft extends the full function of diffserv to an MPLS network
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