Features of MPLS in C#

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Features of MPLS
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VPN A LER LSR VPN B LER VPN A
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Figure 4-5 VPN connectivity using LSP tunnels
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LSR LER LSR VPN A
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VPN Traffic Engineering An LSP tunnel forms an excellent encapsulation
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scheme for VPN data flowing between two LSRs But how do LSRs determine which LSPs to set up to provide connectivity for VPNs In effect, how do LSRs decide which other LSRs provide access to the VPNs which they themselves serve Even once this has been done, how should the different VPNs be mapped into LSP tunnels A separate tunnel for each VPN or a single tunnel for all VPNs These are complex questions that do not have a single right answer A number of factors determine what VPN trafficengineering (TE) scheme best suits the performance and scalability requirements of a particular customer and his or her service provider Identifying VPN Peers This is the first problem facing an LSR that has been configured to support a VPN The simplest scheme is to use explicit manual configuration of the VPN peers This is the traditional solution, providing obvious and deterministic control of resources and security, but it does not scale well as the size and complexity of the VPN increases Alternative schemes automate the process of discovering VPN peers by using a directory or by overlaying VPN membership information on one or more routing protocols used on the service provider network This greatly simplifies the configuration task for a VPN because it means that each service provider edge router only needs to be configured with information about the VPNs serviced by each of its customer interfaces There is clearly a potential security trade-off here as rogue routers can pretend to give access to a VPN In comparison, an IPSec-based solution requires each service provider edge router to also be configured with security attributes for each peer in the VPN, which greatly increases the configuration complexity Several options for identifying VPN peers are examined in the section VPN Peer and Route Discovery See also the section MPLS VPN Security for further discussion of IPSec
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Multiplexing VPNs on an LSP Although LSRs in the core of the service provider network do not have to examine the data flowing on VPN LSP tunnels, they are still aware of the existence of these tunnels This can represent a scalability problem if a separate mesh of LSP tunnels is used for each VPN because the core LSRs must at least maintain a forwarding table entry and associated resource reservation for each tunnel If the service provider supports thousands of VPN customers, the core LSRs could be required to maintain millions of LSPs This is the same problem faced by VPN solutions based on ATM or Frame Relay technology Depending on the network topology, this large number of labels may also be beyond the capacity of the LSR switching hardware An alternative approach is to multiplex the traffic from multiple VPNs that share the same ingress and egress service provider edge routers within a single LSP tunnel between those LSRs This is achieved using label stacks, with a single outer tunnel set up across the core and an inner LSP that identifies the VPN for which the data is bound The lower label in the stack is known only to the ingress and egress LSRs This use of label stacks reduces the number of LSP tunnels exposed to the network core, but it ties VPNs together The multiplexed VPNs cannot be routed separately or given different prioritization or drop priority by the core LSRs The VPNs must also share a single network resource reservation within the network core, which may make it harder for the service provider to guarantee the service level agreement (SLA) for each individual customer In Figure 4-6, two VPNs are connected across the MPLS network between a pair of label edge routers The traffic for each VPN is carried on a distinct LSP shown in the diagram These two VPNs are nested within an outer LSP shown in blue
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