qr code reader using webcam c# Kidney in Visual C#.NET

Read QR Code ISO/IEC18004 in Visual C#.NET Kidney

Kidney
Decoding QR Code In C#
Using Barcode scanner for VS .NET Control to read, scan QR Code image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
QR Code JIS X 0510 Recognizer In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode recognizer for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Renal pelvis
Recognizing Bar Code In Visual C#
Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan barcode image in VS .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Barcode Reader In C#.NET
Using Barcode decoder for VS .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Ureter Bladder
Scanning Denso QR Bar Code In C#
Using Barcode decoder for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan QR Code image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
QR Code Recognizer In VS .NET
Using Barcode scanner for ASP.NET Control to read, scan QR Code image in ASP.NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Urethra
Quick Response Code Decoder In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode reader for .NET framework Control to read, scan QR image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Quick Response Code Recognizer In VB.NET
Using Barcode reader for VS .NET Control to read, scan QR-Code image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Figure 1 1 A, The urinary system
Matrix 2D Barcode Recognizer In C#.NET
Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan Matrix 2D Barcode image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Linear Recognizer In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode reader for .NET framework Control to read, scan 1D Barcode image in VS .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
The urine formed by a kidney collects in the renal pelvis and then flows through the ureter into the bladder, from which it is eliminated via the urethra B, Section of a human kidney Half the kidney has been sliced away Note that the structure shows regional differences The outer portion (cortex) contains all the glomeruli The collecting ducts form a large portion of the inner kidney (medulla), giving it a striped, pyramid-like appearance, and these drain into the renal pelvis The papilla is in the inner portion of the medulla
Recognizing EAN13 In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode scanner for VS .NET Control to read, scan EAN13 image in VS .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Bar Code Recognizer In C#.NET
Using Barcode decoder for .NET framework Control to read, scan bar code image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Cortex Papilla Calyx Renal pelvis
Scanning Identcode In Visual C#.NET
Using Barcode recognizer for .NET Control to read, scan Identcode image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Read Bar Code In None
Using Barcode recognizer for Font Control to read, scan barcode image in Font applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Ureter
Reading GS1-128 In Java
Using Barcode reader for Java Control to read, scan GS1-128 image in Java applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Scan ECC200 In C#
Using Barcode reader for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Medulla (renal pyramids)
Recognize Bar Code In None
Using Barcode decoder for Office Word Control to read, scan barcode image in Word applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
DataMatrix Decoder In Objective-C
Using Barcode recognizer for iPhone Control to read, scan ECC200 image in iPhone applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
THE NEPHRON
European Article Number 13 Recognizer In Java
Using Barcode decoder for Eclipse BIRT Control to read, scan EAN 13 image in BIRT reports applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Recognize Bar Code In Java
Using Barcode Control SDK for BIRT reports Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Eclipse BIRT applications.
www.OnBarcode.com
Each kidney contains approximately 1 million nephrons, one of which is shown diagrammatically in Figure 1 2 Each nephron consists of a spherical filtering component, called the renal corpuscle, and a tubule extending from the renal corpuscle Let us begin with the renal corpuscle, which is responsible for the initial step in urine formation: the separation of a protein-free filtrate from plasma
6 / 1
Proximal convoluted tubule
Distal convoluted tubule Initial portion of cortical collecting duct
Macula densa Bowman's capsule Glomerulus Afferent and efferent arterioles Straight proximal tubule Thick ascending limb of Henle's loop
Connecting tubule Cortical collecting duct
Medullary collecting duct
Descending thin limb of Henle's loop
Ascending thin limb of Henle's loop Papillary duct
Figure 1 2 Relationships of component parts of a long-looped nephron, which has
been uncoiled for clarity (relative lengths of the different segments are not drawn to scale) The combination of glomerulus and Bowman s capsule is the renal corpuscle
The Renal Corpuscle
The renal corpuscle consists of a compact tuft of interconnected capillary loops, the glomerulus (pl glomeruli) or glomerular capillaries, surrounded by a balloonlike hollow capsule: Bowman s capsule (Figure 1 3) Blood enters and leaves Bowman s capsule through arterioles that penetrate the surface of the capsule at the vascular pole A fluid-filled space (the urinary space or Bowman s space) exists within the capsule (labeled US in Figure 1 3), and it is into this space that fluid filters Opposite the vascular pole, Bowman s capsule has an opening that leads into the first portion of the tubule (see Figure 1 3, bottom)
reNaL FUNCtIONS, aNatOMY, aND BaSIC prOCeSSeS / 7
AA EA
EGM PE
US PO GBM
Figure 1 3 Diagram of a longitudinal section through a glomerulus and its juxtaglomerular (JG) apparatus The JG apparatus consists of the granular cells (GC), which secrete renin, the macula densa (MD), and the extraglomerular mesangial cells (EGM) E, endothelium of the capillaries; EA, efferent arteriole; AA, afferent arteriole; PE, parietal (outer) epithelium of Bowman s space; PO, podocytes of Bowman s capsule; GBM, glomerular basement membrane; US, urinary (Bowman s) space (Reproduced with permission from Kriz W et al In: Davidson AM, ed Proceedings of the 10th International Congress on Nephrology, Vol 1 London: Balliere Tindall; 1987)
8 / 1
The filtration barrier in the renal corpuscle through which all filtered substances must pass consists of 3 layers: the capillary endothelium of the glomerular capillaries, a rather thick basement membrane, and a single-celled layer of epithelial cells (Figure 1 4) The first layer, the endothelial cells of the capillaries, is perforated by many large fenestrae ( windows ), like a slice of Swiss cheese, and
Proximal tubule Lumen of Bowman s capsule (Bowman s space)
Efferent arteriole
C Afferent A arteriole
Figure 1 4 A, Anatomy of the glomerulus B, Cross-section of glomerular membranes US, urinary (Bowman s) space; E, epithelial foot processes; GBM, glomerular basement membranes; End, capillary endothelium; Cap, lumen of capillary (Courtesy HG Rennke Originally published in Fed Proc 1977;36:2019; reprinted with permission) C, Scanning electron micrograph of podocytes covering glomerular capillary loops; the view is from inside Bowman s space The large mass is a cell body Note the remarkable interdigitation of the foot processes from adjacent podocytes and the slits between them (Courtesy of C Tisher)
reNaL FUNCtIONS, aNatOMY, aND BaSIC prOCeSSeS / 9
is freely permeable to everything in the blood except red blood cells and platelets The middle layer, the capillary basement membrane, is not a membrane in the sense of a lipid bilayer membrane but is a gel-like acellular meshwork of glycoproteins and proteoglycans, with a structure like a kitchen sponge The third layer consists of epithelial cells that rest on the basement membrane and face Bowman s space These cells are called podocytes They are quite different from the relatively simple, flattened epithelial cells that line the outside of Bowman s capsule The podocytes have an unusual octopus-like structure Small fingers, called pedicels (or foot processes), extend from each arm of the podocyte and are embedded in the basement membrane Pedicels from a given podocyte interdigitate with the pedicels from adjacent podocytes Spaces between adjacent pedicels constitute the path through which the filtrate, once through the endothelial cells and basement membrane, travels to enter Bowman s space The foot processes are coated by a thick layer of extracellular material, which partially occludes the slits, and extremely thin processes called slit diaphragms bridge the slits between the pedicels Slit diaphragms are widened versions of the tight junctions and adhering junctions that link all contiguous epithelial cells together These are like miniature ladders The pedicels form the sides of the ladder, and the slit diaphragms are the rungs The functional significance of this anatomic arrangement is that it permits the filtration of large volumes of fluid from the capillaries into Bowman s space but restricts filtration of large plasma proteins such as albumin Another cell type the mesangial cell is found in the central part of the glomerulus between and within capillary loops (see Figure 1 3) Glomerular mesangial cells act as phagocytes and remove trapped material from the basement membrane They also contain large numbers of myofilaments and can contract in response to a variety of stimuli in a manner similar to vascular smooth muscle cells The role of such contraction in influencing filtration by the renal corpuscles is discussed in s 2 and 7
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.