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005 M/s = k (001 M) (001 M) 2 k = (005 M/s)(001 M) (001 M) 4 2 k = 5 10 /M s in C#
2 005 M/s = k (001 M) (001 M) 2 k = (005 M/s)(001 M) (001 M) 4 2 k = 5 10 /M s Recognizing ECC200 In C#.NET Using Barcode reader for .NET framework Control to read, scan Data Matrix 2d barcode image in .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comReading DataMatrix In C# Using Barcode reader for .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications. www.OnBarcode.comKEY IDEA
Read Barcode In Visual C#.NET Using Barcode recognizer for .NET framework Control to read, scan bar code image in Visual Studio .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comBarcode Decoder In C# Using Barcode reader for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in .NET framework applications. www.OnBarcode.comSometimes, because of the numbers complexity, you must set up the equations mathematically The ratio of the rate expressions of two experiments will be used in determining the reaction orders The equations will be chosen so that the concentration of only one reactant has changed while the others remain constant In the example above, the ratio of experiments 1 and 2 will be used to determine the effect of a change of the concentration of NO on the rate, and then experiments 1 and 3 will be used to determine the effect of O2 Experiments 2 and 3 cannot be used, because both chemical species have changed concentration Remember: In choosing experiments to compare, choose two in which the concentration of only one reactant has changed while the others have remained constant Comparing experiments 1 and 2: 0 05 M/s = k [0 01]m [0 01]n 0 20 M/s = [0 02]m [0 01]n Data Matrix 2d Barcode Decoder In C#.NET Using Barcode decoder for VS .NET Control to read, scan ECC200 image in Visual Studio .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comDecode Data Matrix 2d Barcode In Visual Studio .NET Using Barcode decoder for ASP.NET Control to read, scan DataMatrix image in ASP.NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comn Canceling the rate constants and the [001] and simplifying: Recognizing Data Matrix 2d Barcode In .NET Framework Using Barcode decoder for .NET framework Control to read, scan ECC200 image in .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comScan Data Matrix In Visual Basic .NET Using Barcode reader for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan Data Matrix ECC200 image in .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.com1 1 = 4 2 Comparing experiments 1 and 3: Decode 1D In Visual C# Using Barcode recognizer for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan 1D Barcode image in Visual Studio .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comEAN / UCC  13 Reader In C# Using Barcode scanner for .NET framework Control to read, scan GS1 128 image in Visual Studio .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comm = 2 (use logarithms to solve for m) 0 05 M/s = k [0 01]m [0 01]n 0 10 M/s = [0 01]m [0 02]n Canceling the rate constants and the [001]n and simplifying: n 1 1 = 2 2 n =1 Writing the rate equation: Recognize Data Matrix ECC200 In Visual C# Using Barcode recognizer for .NET framework Control to read, scan Data Matrix ECC200 image in Visual Studio .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comUSS Code 39 Decoder In C# Using Barcode scanner for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan Code 3 of 9 image in .NET framework applications. www.OnBarcode.com2 Rate = k[NO] [O2] Reading Leitcode In Visual C# Using Barcode recognizer for .NET Control to read, scan Leitcode image in VS .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comPDF417 Recognizer In Java Using Barcode reader for Java Control to read, scan read, scan image in Java applications. www.OnBarcode.comAgain, the rate constant k could be determined by choosing any of the three experiments, substituting the concentrations, rate, and orders into the rate expression, and then solving for k Decode Data Matrix In None Using Barcode reader for Online Control to read, scan Data Matrix ECC200 image in Online applications. www.OnBarcode.comRecognizing Bar Code In None Using Barcode reader for Font Control to read, scan barcode image in Font applications. www.OnBarcode.comKinetics 201
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Scanning UPCA Supplement 5 In VB.NET Using Barcode scanner for .NET Control to read, scan UPCA Supplement 2 image in .NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comPDF 417 Decoder In .NET Framework Using Barcode reader for ASP.NET Control to read, scan PDF417 2d barcode image in ASP.NET applications. www.OnBarcode.comThus far, only cases in which instantaneous data are used in the rate expression have been shown These expressions allow us to answer questions concerning the speed of the reaction at a particular moment, but not questions about how long it might take to use up a certain reactant, etc If changes in the concentration of reactants or products over time are taken into account, as in the integrated rate laws, these questions can be answered Consider the following reaction: A B Assuming that this reaction is first order, then the rate of reaction can be expressed as the change in concentration of reactant A with time: Rate = and also as the rate law: Rate = k[A ] Setting these terms equal to each other gives: and integrating over time gives: ln[A ]t ln[A ]0 = kt where ln is the natural logarithm, [A ]0 is the concentration of reactant A at time = 0, and [A]t is the concentration of reactant A at some time t If the reaction is second order in A, then the following equation can be derived using the same procedure: 1 1 = kt [A ]t [ A ]0 Consider the following problem: Hydrogen iodide, HI, decomposes through a secondorder process to the elements The rate constant is 240 10 21/M s at 25 C How long will it take for the concentration of HI to drop from 0200 M to 0190 M at 25 C Answer: 20 21 110 10 s In this problem, k = 240 10 /M s, [A ]0 = 0200 M, and [A]1 = 0190 M You can simply insert the values and solve for t, or you first can rearrange the equation to give t = [1/[A ]t 1/[A ]0]/k You will get the same answer in either case If you get a negative answer, you interchanged [A ]t and [A]0 A common mistake is to use the firstorder equation instead of the secondorder equation The problem will always give you the information needed to determine whether the firstorder or secondorder equation is required The order of reaction can be determined graphically through the use of the integrated rate law If a plot of the ln[A] versus time yields a straight line, then the reaction is first order 1 with respect to reactant A If a plot of [A] versus time yields a straight line, then the reaction is second order with respect to reactant A The reaction halflife, t1/2, is the amount of time that it takes for a reactant concentration to decrease to onehalf its initial concentration For a firstorder reaction, the halflife [ A ] = k [A ] t [A ] t

