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Electron Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals
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According to the latest atomic model, the electrons in an atom are located in various energy levels or shells that are located at different distances from the nucleus The lower the number of the shell, the closer to the nucleus the electrons are found Within the shells, the electrons are grouped in subshells of slightly different energies The number associated with the shell is equal to the number of subshells found at that energy level For example, energy
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Table 52 Summary of Atomic Shell, Subshells, and Orbitals for Shells 1 4
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SHELL (ENERGY LEVEL) SUBSHELL NUMBER OF ORBITALS ELECTRON CAPACITY
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2 total 2 6 8 total 2 6 10 18 total 2 6 10 14 32 total
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level 2 (shell 2) has two subshells The subshells are denoted by the symbols s, p, d, f, etc and correspond to differently shaped volumes of space in which the probability of finding the electrons is high The electrons in a particular subshell may be distributed among volumes of space of equal energies called orbitals There is one orbital for an s subshell, three for a p, five for a d, seven for an f, etc Only two electrons may occupy an orbital Table 52 summarizes the shells, subshells, and orbitals in an atom The chapter on Spectroscopy, Light, and Electrons, 10 has a discussion of the origin of this system
Energy-Level Diagrams
The information above can be shown in graph form as an energy-level diagram, as shown in Figure 51:
4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s 2p 2s
Energy-level diagram of an atom
Basics 49
Be sure to fill the lowest energy levels first (Aufbau principle) when using the diagram above In filling orbitals having equal energy, electrons are added to the orbitals to half fill them all before any pairing occurs (Hund s rule) Sometimes it is difficult to remember the relative energy position of the orbitals Notice that the 4s fills before the 3d Figure 52 may help you remember the pattern in filling Study the pattern and be able to reproduce it during the exam
1s 2s 3s 4s 5s 6s 7s 2p 3p 4p 5p 6p 7p 3d 4d 5d 6d 4f 5f
Orbital filling pattern
Following these rules, the energy-level diagram for silicon (Z = 14) can be written as shown in Figure 53
4d 5s 4p 3d 4s 3p 3s
2p 2s
1s
Energy-level diagram for silicon
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Although this filling pattern conveys a lot of information, it is bulky A shorthand method for giving the same information has been developed the electronic configuration
Electronic Configurations
The electronic configuration is a condensed way of representing the pattern of electrons in an atom Using the Aufbau build-up pattern that was used in writing the energy-level diagram, consecutively write the number of the shell (energy level), the type of orbital (s, p, d, etc), and then the number of electrons in that orbital shown as a superscript For 2 1 example, 1s 2s would indicate that there are two electrons in the s-orbital in energy level (shell) l, and one electron in the s-orbital in energy level 2 Looking at the energy-level diagram for silicon above, the electronic configuration would be written as: silicon : 1s 2 2s 2 2p6 3s 2 3p 2 The sum of all the superscripts should be equal to the number of electrons in the atom (the atomic number, Z) Electronic configurations can also be written for cations and anions
Periodic Table
If chemistry students had to learn the individual properties of the 100+ elements that are now known, it would be a monumental and frustrating task Early scientists had to do just that Then several scientists began to notice trends in the properties of the elements and began grouping them in various ways In 1871, a Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev, introduced the first modern periodic table He arranged the elements in terms of increasing atomic mass He then arranged columns so that elements that had similar properties were in the same column Mendeleev was able to predict the existence and properties of elements that were then unknown Later, when they were discovered, Mendeleev s predictions were remarkably accurate Later the periodic table was rearranged to sequence the elements by increasing atomic number, not mass The result is the modern periodic table shown in Figure 54 This is not the periodic table supplied on the AP exam The one in this book has family and period labels Become familiar with these labels so that you can effectively use the unlabeled one You may wish to add labels to the one supplied with the AP exam Each square on this table represents a different element and contains three bits of information The first is the element symbol You should become familiar with the symbols of the commonly used elements Secondly, the square lists the atomic number of the element, usually centered above the element This integer represents the number of protons in the element s nucleus The atomic number will always be a whole number Thirdly, the square lists the element s mass, normally centered underneath the element symbol This number is not a whole number because it is the weighted average (taking into consideration abundance) of all the masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of that element The mass number can never be less than the atomic number
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