Acid Base Reactions in C#

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Acid Base Reactions
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In general, acids react with bases to form a salt and, usually, water The salt will depend upon which acid and base are used: HCl(aq ) + NaOH(aq ) H 2O(l ) + NaCl(aq ) HNO3 ( aq ) + KOH( aq ) H2O( l ) + KNO3 ( aq ) HBr( aq ) + NH3 ( aq ) NH 4 Br( aq )
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Reactions of this type are called neutralization reactions The first two neutralization equations are represented by the same net ionic equation: H + (aq ) + OH (aq ) H 2O(l ) In the third case, the net ionic equation is different: H+ ( aq ) + NH3 ( aq ) NH+ (aq ) 4 As mentioned previously, certain salts have acid base properties In general, salts containing cations of strong bases and anions of strong acids are neither acidic nor basic They are neutral, reacting with neither acids nor bases An example would be potassium nitrate, KNO3 The potassium comes from the strong base KOH and the nitrate from the strong acid HNO3 Salts containing cations not of strong bases but with anions of strong acids behave as acidic salts An example would be ammonium chloride, NH4Cl 2 NH 4 Cl(aq ) + Ba (OH)2 (aq ) BaCl 2 (aq ) + 2 NH3 (aq ) + 2 H 2O( l ) NH+ (aq ) + OH (aq ) NH3 (aq ) + H 2O(l ) 4 Cations of strong bases and anions not of strong acids are basic salts An example would be sodium carbonate, Na2CO3 It reacts with an acid to form carbonic acid, which would then decompose to carbon dioxide and water: 2 HCl(aq) + Na2CO3(aq) 2 NaCl(aq) + H2CO3(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)
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+ 2 2 H (aq) + CO3 H2CO3(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(l)
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The same type of reaction would be true for acid carbonates, such as sodium bicarbonate, NaHCO3 Another group of compounds that have acid base properties are the hydrides of the alkali metals and of calcium, strontium, and barium These hydrides will react with water to form the hydroxide ion and hydrogen gas: NaH(s) + H 2O( l ) NaOH(aq ) + H 2 (g ) NaH(s) + H 2O(l ) Na + (a q ) + OH ( aq ) + H 2 ( g )
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+ Note that in this case, water is behaving as H OH
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Acid Base Titrations
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A common laboratory application of acid base reactions is a titration A titration is a laboratory procedure in which a solution of known concentration is used to determine the concentration of an unknown solution For strong acid/strong base titration systems, the net ionic equation is: H+ ( aq ) + OH ( aq ) H 2O(l ) For example, suppose you wanted to determine the molarity of an HCl solution You would pipet a known volume of the acid into a flask and add a couple drops of a suitable acid base indicator An indicator that is commonly used is phenolphthalein, which is
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Reactions and Periodicity 79
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colorless in an acidic solution and pink in a basic solution You would then fill a buret with a strong base solution (NaOH is commonly used) of known concentration The buret allows you to add small amounts of the base solution to the acid solution in the flask The course of the titration can also be followed by the use of a pH meter Initially the pH of the solution will be low, since it is an acid solution As the base is added and neutralization of the acid takes place, the pH will slowly rise Small amounts of the base are added until one reaches the equivalence point The equivalence point is that point in the titration where + the number of moles of H in the acid solution has been exactly neutralized with the same number of moles of OH : moles H+ = moles OH at the equivalence point For the titration of a strong acid with a strong base, the pH rapidly rises in the vicinity of the equivalence point Then, as the tiniest amount of base is added in excess, the indicator turns pink This is called the endpoint of the titration In an accurate titration the endpoint will be as close to the equivalence point as possible For simple titrations that do not use a pH meter, it is assumed that the endpoint and the equivalence point are the same, so that: moles H + = moles OH at the endpoint After the equivalence point has been passed, the pH is greater than 7 (basic solution) and begins to level out somewhat Figure 61 shows the shape of the curve for this titration Reaction stoichiometry can then be used to solve for the molarity of the acid solution See the Stoichiometry chapter for a discussion of solution stoichiometry An unknown base can be titrated with an acid solution of known concentration One major difference is that the pH will be greater than 7 initially and will decrease as the titration proceeds The other major difference is that the indicator will start off pink, and the color will vanish at the endpoint
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